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1
9/11 / Re: The Seekrs - The birth and life of the 9-11 Truth Movement
« on: April 02, 2007, 01:48:41 PM »
IMO the collapsing towers are a red herring to divert attention from the conspirators who appear to have been CIA assets.  The real question is whether 9/11 was a government intelligence operation and who was in on it.

There is no doubt that 9/11 was an enormous aid to US foreign policy.

2
9/11 / Re: The Seekrs - The birth and life of the 9-11 Truth Movement
« on: April 02, 2007, 01:58:58 AM »
Here's the Wiki article on The Seekers

9/11 Truth Movement
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Part of a series on the:
9/11 Truth Movement
Articles
Participants and organizations

Conspiracy theories
Controlled demolition
 
Participants
Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed
Kevin Barrett
Robert M. Bowman
Andreas von Bülow
James Fetzer
David Ray Griffin
Sander Hicks
Jim Hoffman
Alex Jones
Steven E. Jones
Thierry Meyssan
William Rodriguez
Michael Ruppert
Peter Dale Scott
Webster G. Tarpley
Jimmy Walter
Barrie Zwicker
 
Organizations
9/11 Citizens Watch
Family Steering Committee
Jersey Girls
Scholars for 9/11 Truth
The 9/11 REcommission Report
 
Events
9/11 + The Neo-Con Agenda Symposium
 
Films
9/11: Press for Truth
Dust to Dust: The Health Effects of 9/11
Loose Change
Fahrenheit 9/11
 
Books
9/11: The Big Lie
The CIA and September 11
The New Pearl Harbor
The Terror Timeline
The War on Freedom
This box: view `¢ talk `¢ edit
The 9/11 Truth Movement is a self-described collection of individuals, researchers and groups who question the governmental, mainstream scientific and media accounts of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The primary claims of the movement have been called a "conspiracy theory" by numerous critics who argue that, like many other conspiracy theories, proponents of such theories ignore or distort evidence that doesn't fit the theory and exploit every bit of unusual data as if every discovered anomaly somehow supports the conspiracy theory.

This movement is informal, decentralized and occasionally fractious; its members convene through the Internet and national and international conferences.[1][2]

Contents [hide]
1 Characteristics
2 History
2.1 Origin
2.2 Evolution
2.2.1 911Truth.org
2.2.2 Hispanic Victims Group
2.3 Meetings
2.3.1 September 9, 2004: "The 9-11 Citizens Commission"
2.3.2 June 2006: "9/11 + The Neo-Con Agenda Symposium"
2.3.3 June 2006: "9/11: Revealing the Truth"
2.3.3.1 Mission Statement
2.3.4 Other meetings
3 Response
3.1 Response to response
4 Media coverage
5 See also
6 References
7 External links
 


[edit] Characteristics
The 9/11 Truth Movement embraces a political diversity of members, including "left", "right", pacifists, paleoconservatives, Greens, anarchists, and libertarians, but is typically representated by individuals distrustful of the federal government. The movement has received much attention from alternative media on the Internet, including talk-radio hosts like Alex Jones who has addressed the existence of the so-called Movement and some of the questions group members claim to be unanswered. Some of the questions asked by activists and researchers in the 9/11 Truth Movement were also put forth by the 9/11 Family Steering Committee [11] to the 9/11 Commission in the hopes they would be responded to during the public hearings. In fact, the 9/11 families were told by the 9/11 Commission that the 9/11 Family Steering Committee's questions would be used as a roadmap by the Commission, and would be answered in the final report. To the consternation of many in the Truth movement, many of those questions were allegedly not asked in either the hearings or in the Commission Report.[12]

While some group members maintain that the US government was intentionally negligent, allowing blame for 9/11 to remain on Muslim hijackers, others claim that the attacks were engineered by elements within the government, and not in fact by Arabs (with some claiming that thus the alleged Arab hijackers were, at most, patsies). These activists argue that the physical evidence of rapid falls of the three WTC skyscrapers could not have occurred as the result of aerial collisions and subsequent fires alone, though these arguments have not been widely shared in the civil engineering or scientific communities[citation needed]. Truth movement members Jim Hoffman and Steven E. Jones propose the concept that pre-planted explosives caused the collapses of the WTC towers - the Controlled demolition hypothesis for the collapse of the World Trade Center - suggesting that only insiders with full knowledge of the attacks could have gained access to and wired the buildings. However, to date their theories and arguments have not been published in any established, peer reviewed science journal, nor have they received much if any support in the scientific community. Although Jones has been criticized by his university for publicizing his claims before vetting them through the approved peer review process [13], he continues to remain a focus of public interest for his 9/11 research.

Movement members have produced such books as Webster Tarpley's 9/11 Synthetic Terror: Made in USA, David Ray Griffin's aforementioned The New Pearl Harbor, Crossing the Rubicon by Michael C. Ruppert, Inside Job by Jim Marrs, The Terror Timeline by "Paul Thompson", Painful Questions by Eric Hufschmid and The War on Freedom by Nafeez Ahmed. Some of the movement's popular videos have been "The Great Deception" and "The Great Conspiracy" by Barrie Zwicker, "Truth and Politics" and "9/11 and American Empire" by David Ray Griffin, "Loose Change" (2005), "9/11 Mysteries" (2006) and 9/11: Press for Truth (2006). In 2006 actor Charlie Sheen spoke out on the Alex Jones show in support of many of the allegations of the Truth movement and called for an independent investigation into the 9/11 attacks, an interview which was subsequently covered by CNN Showbiz Tonight.

The movement has received criticism from a variety of sources. MIT Engineering Professor Thomas W. Eagar states,

These people (in the 9/11 truth movement) use the 'reverse scientific method,'" Eagar said. "They determine what happened, throw out all the data that doesn't fit their conclusion, and then hail their findings as the only possible conclusion."[3]
On September 3, 2006: Time published a lead article, "Why the 9/11 Conspiracies Won't Go Away", noting that

The population of world No. 2 is larger than you might think. A Scripps-Howard poll of 1,010 adults last month found that 36% of Americans consider it "very likely" or "somewhat likely" that government officials either allowed the attacks to be carried out or carried out the attacks themselves. Thirty-six percent adds up to a lot of people. This is not a fringe phenomenon. It is a mainstream political reality.[4]

For more poll data see 9/11 conspiracy theories.

Matt Taibbi of Rolling Stone has written that he has "two basic gripes with the 9/11 Truth movement:"

The first is that it gives supporters of Bush an excuse to dismiss critics of this administration. I have no doubt that every time one of those Loose Change dickwads opens his mouth, a Republican somewhere picks up five votes...Secondly, it's bad enough that people in this country think Tim LaHaye is a prophet and Sean Hannity is an objective newsman. But if large numbers of people in this country can swallow 9/11 conspiracy theory without puking, all hope is lost. [5]





[edit] History

[edit] Origin
Almost immediately after the terrorist attacks, some skepticism of the mainstream media account appeared.

The first book on the subject, 9/11 The Big Lie, was published in France in March 2002 by Thierry Meyssan, President of Voltaire Network. He emphasized purported anomalies in the photos of the Pentagon. His work has since been the subject of multiple critiques (including critiques written by prominent Truth Movement researchers), some of which allege that Meyssan's book is a form of misdirection.[14],[15], [16][17]).

Around the same time, Bin Laden: The Forbidden Truth was published in France by Jean-Charles Brisard and Guillaume Dasquie, documenting media reports in publications like the Times of India that the US government had told numerous allies it was going to invade Afghanistan several months before 9/11. Up until 2004, Germany produced the largest number of books questioning the official 9/11 account; three of them, by Andreas von Bülow, Gerhard Wisnewski and Mathias Bröckers, were best-sellers, as were the aforementioned French works.

In June 2002, the group Unanswered Questions held an event [18] at the Washington National Press Club. Various officials and some 9/11 family members used the event to call for another investigation of the events of 9/11.

The first work in English was The War on Freedom [19] by Nafeez Ahmed in July 2002, emphasizing geopolitical motives, soon followed by Michel Chossudovsky's book, War and Globalization - The Truth Behind September 11th. In September 2002 Eric Hufschmid's Painful Questions was published, which promotes a controlled demolition thesis of the destruction of the WTC towers.

While these books inspired many activists of the 9/11 Truth Movement, others came to the movement via websites, e-mail and demonstrations. Indymedia websites, for example, also played a role in promoting the questioning of the mainstream media account of 9/11 early on. Canadian journalist Barrie Zwicker aired a series on Vision TV titled "The Great Deception" in January and February 2002, the first televised questioning of the common account that charged a deliberate effort to allow the attacks to happen via suppression of the normal air defense systems over New York and Washington.

Alex Jones predicted in July 2001 that the U.S. government would carry out terror within the next few months and so he credits himself with predicting the US Government would orchestrate the 9/11 Attacks and blame it on Bin Laden, or some other CIA asset.[6] The terror attacks would result in 4 million dead and lead to marshal law. Jones made those statements six weeks before the terrorist attacks and called his alerts Operation Expose The Government Terrorists. Thus, Jones been referred to as the progenitor of the movement.[7] Alex Jones had made many false claims of predictions in the past[8] including his prediction in August 2006 about terror attacks before the end of October 2006[9].

In 2002, Rep. Cynthia McKinney, D-GA, became an icon of the movement when she questioned whether George Bush had foreknowledge of 9/11. In November 2003, the 911 Visibility Project held the first coordinated national activism protest for 9/11 truth activists. In March 2004, came the book The New Pearl Harbor by the academic and theologian David Ray Griffin, providing a methodical, deductive framework. In 2004, Michael C. Ruppert's Crossing the Rubicon was published, which identified potential key insider suspects in the 9/11 attacks and provide an examination of their context: petroleum, geopolitics, narco-traffic, intelligence and militarism. In 2005 Webster Tarpley's 9/11 Synthetic Terror: Made in USA described a link between 9/11 and previous accusations of false flag state-sponsored terrorism such as Gladio or the Red Brigades.


[edit] Evolution
On January 8, 2002 in San Francisco, a rally and march on Senator Dianne Feinstein's office took place to demand a Congressional Investigation of 9/11. A delegation of activists from peace and human rights organizations met with Senator Feinstein's and Senator Barbara Boxer's staffers and raised key questions about 9/11[20]. That month, President Bush and Vice President Cheney asked Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle to limit the investigations to "intelligence failures."[21]

The 911 Visibility Project distributed thousands of STOP the 9-11 COVER-UP signs at the anti-war protests of March 20, 2004, which received national press exposure and served to kick start the national 9/11 Truth Movement. Also in March 2004, the first International Inquiry into 9/11 [22] was hosted in San Francisco, California, which brought together 9/11 researchers and activists from all over the world for presentations, dialog, and interviews.

To date, activists in the movement have distributed over 6 million "Deception Dollars" (an anti-Bush parody of the dollar bill that includes addresses of websites which claim to prove that 9/11 was an inside job). David Ray Griffin made an address on "9-11 and the American Empire", on April 18, 2005, which was broadcast on C-Span and distributed via radio, community access TV, DVD, and in print. Films have also provided a key method in disseminating information to the public for the 9/11 truth movement. Some of the more successful films have included Loose Change and 9/11: Press for Truth.

The 9/11 Truth Movement received more publicity in the fall of 2005, when former BYU Physics professor Steven E. Jones announced a paper describing his hypothesis that the WTC towers had been intentionally demolished by explosives. This paper garnered a small amount of mainstream media attention, including an appearance by Jones on MSNBC. This was the first such programming on a major cable news station. Jones has to date failed to get his paper published in any established, peer reviewed mainstream science journal, other than publictions produced by fellow Truth movement members. On September 7, 2006, Jones was placed on paid leave while his university reviewed the scientific basis of his work in this area.[10][11]

On May 16, 2006, the Department of Defense, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request by Judicial Watch, released more video of the Pentagon attack, which brought attention to members of the 9/11 Truth Movement.[12] Groups within the 9/11 truth movement including flight77.info, and Scholars for 9/11 Truth, say they are working to get the others of the 70 or more videos[23] of the Pentagon released.

In late 2006, a series of 9/11 events were held in Kansas City [13], Denver, Boulder [14] and Berkeley [15]. These events were described by members of the movement as generally focused on the scientific analyses of the WTC events and critiques of the official reports. Presenters included physicist Steven E. Jones, researcher Jim Hoffman, former UL manager Kevin Ryan, and lecturer, Kevin Barrett.


[edit] 911Truth.org
911Truth.org is a central 9/11 Truth Movement organization that demands new investigations and supports the Controlled demolition hypothesis for the collapse of the World Trade Center. W. David Kubiak[16] and Janice Matthews[17] is the executive director of 911truth.org and Michael Berger is the spokesman.[18]

2004, it was part in the organization of The Citizens' Commission on 9-11.
August 30, 2004: The first Zogby International poll it sponsored :"Half of New Yorkers Believe US Leaders Had Foreknowledge of Impending 9-11 Attacks and `Consciously Failed` To Act; 66% Call For New Probe of Unanswered Questions by Congress or New York`s Attorney General"[16][19]
Oct. 26, 2004, An alliance of over 114 prominent Americans and 48 family members of those killed on 9/11 who signed the 911Truth.org statement.[20]
May 24, 2006: The second Zogby poll it sponsored: a telephone survey of adults nationwide conducted by Zogby International found out, among other things, that 42% of Americans believed that the US government and 9/11 Commission are covering up the events of 9/11 while 48% did not agree. It also found out that 43% were not aware of the collapse of WTC 7.[21]
June 2, 2006 - June 4, 2006: Held a 9/11 Conference in Chicago where in which members from Scholars for 9/11 Truth participated[22]

[edit] Hispanic Victims Group
The Hispanic Victims Group is a group created after the 9/11 attacks and headed by William Rodriguez. The group was a key force behind the 9/11 Commission,[23] and was among the Families Advisory Council for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation[24] The group helped secure an amnesty for undocumented Hispanic workers who perished.


[edit] Meetings

[edit] September 9, 2004: "The 9-11 Citizens Commission"
The 9-11 Citizens Commission: The Omissions Hearings was a meeting by a group of United States citizens who were skeptical of the findings of the 9/11 Commission Report, and who purported to launch their own investigation into the events of September 11, 2001. The meeting took place on September 9, 2004.

The event was billed as being modeled after the United States Congressional hearings which were conducted by the 9/11 Commission. A group of citizens heard testimony provided by witnesses, authors, experts and whistle blowers. The witnesses gave their testimony after having been sworn in, and were then questioned by the citizen panel. An audience and representatives from the press were also present. In the introduction, Kyle Hence noted that citizen-panelists were not sworn in at the beginning of the 9/11 Commission, and that swearing in had only started after "we made some noise about it, and the press started to ask some questions." The world premiere of Barrie Zwicker's The Great Conspiracy was performed after the end of the hearings and questions.

Citizen-panelists included then-Congresswoman Cynthia McKinney, local Imam and Doctor Faz Khan, and father of one of the victims of the 9/11 attacks, Bob Mcilvaine.

A list of participants include:

Barry Zelman - lost his brother Kenneth in the North Tower
Mindy Kleinberg - widowed, single mother. Video testimony from her hearing to the 9/11 Commission.
Jenna Orkin - plaintiff in potential lawsuit against EPA, gave environmental hazard negligence testimony.
John Judge - co-founder of 911 CitizensWatch.
Barrie Zwicker - Canadian television journalist.
Michael Springmann - former Diplomat for the Department of State, Attorney, regarding giving Visas to alleged terrorists.
Paul Thompson - author of The Terror Timeline.
Michael Ruppert - founder and editor of From The Wilderness.
Indira Singh - lived and worked at Ground Zero, she read a letter from Sibel Edmonds, and talked about Ptech.
Nicholas Levis - talked about The Omissions Dossier.
Carolyn Betts - attorney, addressed options for future, for example courts.
Tom DeLonge

[edit] June 2006: "9/11 + The Neo-Con Agenda Symposium"
The 9/11 + The Neo-Con Agenda Symposium was held June 24-25 in Los Angeles.


[edit] June 2006: "9/11: Revealing the Truth"
9/11: Revealing the Truth -- Reclaiming Our Future was held in June 2-4 2006, many members of the Scholars for 9/11 Truth met in Chicago, Illinois, for a conference on 9/11 theories, which was covered by some international media.[25][26]


[edit] Mission Statement
A conference seeking to find strategies and solutions to demand accountability for the crimes of 9/11. There is overwhelming evidence of government complicity, as we move forward and direct our focus on actions that further the cause of accountability. We aim for unity within our movement to accomplish these goals.


[edit] Other meetings
Lifting the Fog: The Scientific Method Applied to the World Trade Center Disaster
Research on 9/11: Why the Official Story Cannot Be True
9/11 and American Empire: Intellectuals Speak Out
Science Applied to the WTC Collapses
December 2002, first meetings of the 9-11 Truth Alliance were held in New York and San Francisco
Major 9/11 Truth Movement Conference, Berlin, September 2003
New York 9/11 Truth Events
Northern California 9-11 Truth Alliance Meeting
International Citizens` Inquiry Into 9/11, Toronto, 2004
The Citizens' Commission on 9-11 September 9, 2004
British 9/11 Truth Campaign Calendar
9/11 Truth at the Boston Social Forum
DC Truth Convergence, Lafayette Park, July 22-24, 2005
Report of San Francisco area 9-11 Truth event held Feb. 23, 2006

[edit] Response
2005 March: Popular Mechanics 9/11: Debunking The Myths
2005 April 5: The NIST report[27]
2005 October: NIST "Final report"[28]
2006 August 28: Implosionsworld.com[29]
2006 August 28: The United States Department of State's Counter Misinformation Team"The Top September 11 Conspiracy Theories" Report.[30]
NIST's created an Official "Questions and Answers".[31]
2006 Debunking 9/11 Myths
2006 September 11: Skeptic magazine's eSkeptic published "9/11 Conspiracy Theories: The 9/11 Truth Movement in Perspective" by Phil Mole [32]

[edit] Response to response
NIST "Questions and Answers" has been answered by Jim Hoffman,[33] Sean Glazier[34] and Rob Rice.[35]
Jim Hoffman[36][37] has responded to the Popular Mechanics' article.

[edit] Media coverage
2006 July 28 `” National Post[25]
2006 September 3 `” San Francisco Chronicle,[38]
2006 September 5 `” The Guardian[39]
2006 September 6 `” Daily Mail[40]
2002 January 31 `” Lower Manhattan Development Corporation[24]
2002 September 15 `” New York Times, web edition[41]
2004 March 25 `” The Christian Science Monitor[23]
Scoop[42]
Independent Media Center[43]
Voltaire Network[44]
9/11 Citizens Watch[45]
911Truth.org[46]

[edit] See also
Amateur investigators researching the 2001 anthrax attacks
Background history of the September 11, 2001 attacks
Casualties of the September 11, 2001 attacks
Collapse of the World Trade Center
Controlled demolition hypothesis for the collapse of the World Trade Center
Criticisms of the 9/11 Commission Report
Flight 11
Flight 77
Flight 93
Flight 175
Guantanamo Bay
The Pentagon
Project for a New American Century
Scholars for 9/11 Truth
September 11, 2001 attacks
U.S. government response to the September 11, 2001 attacks
USA PATRIOT Act
War games in progress on September 11, 2001
World political effects arising from the September 11, 2001 attacks
World Trade Center
World Trade Center bombing (1993)
The 9/11 REcommission Report

[edit] References
^ Murphy, Jarrett (2006). The Seekers: The birth and life of the '9-11 Truth movement'. The Village Voice - Education. The Village Voice. Retrieved on 2006-06-09.
^ Gatehouse, Jonathon (2006). Hijacking the truth on 9/11. MacLeans.ca - Education. Rogers Media Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-06-02.
^ Walch, Tad (2006). Controversy dogs Y.'s Jones. Utah news. Deseret News Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
^ [1]
^ Taibbi, Matt (2006). The Low Post: I, Left Gatekeeper. Politics. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
^ Alex Jones Predicts 9/11-like Terrorist attack in U.S. on his July 25, 2001 Show at Google Video
^ http://www.americanscholarssymposium.org/
^ http://perrylogan.org/Bogus%20Predictions.html
^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8116395518760933323
^ Walch, Tad. "BYU places '9/11 truth' professor on paid leave", Deseret Morning News, 2006-09-8.
^ Sullivan, Will. "BYU takes on a 9/11 conspiracy professor", U.S.News & World Report, www.usnews.com, 2006-09-11.
^ Arthur, Bill. "Pentagon Video Shows Flames, Smoke After 9/11 Attack (Update1)", News and Commentary, Regions, US, Bloomberg L.P., 2006-05-16. Retrieved on 2006-06-09.
^ http://www.digitalstyledesigns.com/pages/event.htm "Science Applied to the WTC Collapses"
^ http://www.colorado911visibility.org/ "Research on 9/11: Why the Official Story Cannot Be True -- Scientists Find Overwhelming Evidence of Controlled Demolition"
^ http://liftingthefog.org/ "Lifting the Fog: The Scientific Method Applied to the WTC Disaster"
^ a b [2]
^ http://blog.washingtonpost.com/earlywarning/2006/05/911_truth_i_dont_think_so.html
^ http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0603/22/sbt.01.html
^ [3]
^ [4]
^ [5]
^ http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/ChicagoConferenceJune2006.html
^ a b http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0325/p03s01-usgn.htm
^ a b [6]
^ a b Canada National Post: A theory that just won't die
^ 9/11:Revealing the Truth, Reclaiming Our Future. Chicago, June 2-4, 2006
^ pdf!
^ http://wtc.nist.gov/
^ [7]
^ http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/09/01/news/conspiracy.php
^ http://wtc.nist.gov/pubs/factsheets/faqs_8_2006.htm
^ http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/06-09-11.html
^ http://911research.wtc7.net/reviews/nist/WTC_FAQ_reply.html
^ http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/WhyNISTFactSheetWontDo.html
^ http://www.scholarsfor911truth.org/NISTandThe%20FootOfGod.html
^ http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/gopm/index.html
^ http://911review.com/pm/markup/index.html
^ [8]
^ http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/worldwide/story/0,,1864657,00.html
^ [9]
^ [10]
^
^ http://www.indymedia.org/es/2005/12/829390.shtml
^ http://www.voltairenet.org/article135703.html
^ http://www.911citizenswatch.org/print.php?sid=923
^ http://www.911truth.org/article.php?story=20041026093059633

[edit] External links
Video download of the American Scholars Symposium
500 Conspiracy Buffs Meet to Seek the Truth of 9/11, Alan Feuer, The New York Times, June 2006.
The Ground Zero Grassy Knoll Mark Jacobson, New York Magazine, March 2006
The Seekers: The birth and life of the '9-11 Truth movement' Jarrett Murphy, The Village Voice, February 2006
'Reality is a Construction...' Sander Hicks and the 9/11 Truth Movement, Micky Z., Counterpunch, December 2004.

4
Did U miss the latest attempted coup by Pinky and The Brain?

5
LF is no longer your concern

6
Initially LF was not open to the public.  By invitation only.  (If you look at Persistent Vision's page, you will see that I sponsored him because in those days a sponsor was required.)  When JD thought the software could handle more posters, he opened it to the public.

Closing the forum was in response to SQL problems.  Since its has been closed, the problems have not returned. 

7
I contributed an article I had saved on an old floppy disk.  I am kicking myself, though, over a draft I had of a biography of Nicholas Tesla which AFAIK has never been published anywhere and which probably went down the hole when I got rid of an older computer.

8
General / Re: Collected works of Michael Kreca
« on: May 14, 2006, 05:29:36 AM »
     


    The Rifles of Yugoslavia and Serbia


     

    by Michael Kreca and Dan Reynolds

    Yugoslavia means "land of the southern Slavs". Before World War II
    it was spelled Jugoslavia in English publications. The "J" in
    Serbo-Croat is pronounced as "Y" in English. Yugoslavia from its
    founding in 1918 until 1929 was officially called "Kingdom of the
    Serbs, Croats & Slovenes".

    The Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, along with the Macedonians,
    Montenegrins and the Bosnian Moslems, are the main peoples of
    Yugoslavia with the Serbs being the largest in number. The
    Montenegrins are in fact ethnic Serbs, often called "mountain
    Serbs". The Bosnian Moslems are Serbs or Croats who were forcibly
    converted to Islam by the Ottoman Turks centuries ago. Ethnic
    Hungarians; Germans, many from the German region of Swabia;
    Albanians; Vlachs, (ethnic Rumanians) as well as Gypsies and Jews
    formed significant minority ethnic groups within the country.

    The native Yugoslav languages are all Slavic in their derivation,
    the chief dialect being Serbo-Croat. The only significant difference
    between the two is that the Serbs traditionally use the Russian
    style Cyrillic alphabet, while the Croats employ the standard Latin
    script. The other two main Yugoslav dialects are Slovene and
    Macedon, both differing significantly from Serbo-Croat. As recent
    historical events show, there are many long running, deep seated
    conflicts among the peoples of the former Yugoslavia. Ones that were
    in many cases, deliberately fueled by foreigners and that go back
    many centuries. A brief overview of the history of this area of the
    Balkans will place in context the subject of this article.

    Human habitation of the Balkans can be traced back nearly 10,000
    years. The Danube River Valley and those of its many tributaries
    provided the basis for a rudimentary regional agricultural
    civilization leading to the formation of a number of small cities.
    The archaeological remains of one of these ancient communities,
    Lepenski Vir, were discovered on the southern bank of the Danube
    southeast of Belgrade in 1965.

    Over time, larger scale agriculture, animal husbandry, regional
    trade, rudimentary industry, iron and copper mining and, smelting
    developed causing various tribal groups from the north and east to
    migrate into the area. One of these tribes was the Illyrian, who
    settled mainly in the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The
    Illyrian farmed as well as mined and smelted metals and traded with
    distant areas such as Greece in the period about 3000 BC.

    The Romans began expanding into the area toward the latter part of
    the 3rd Century BC, but more than 200 years of bitter struggle were
    required to completely subjugate the restive native peoples. In 9
    AD, the area formally became the Roman province of Illyricum,
    although because of the intense civil war and constant tribal
    infighting, it was never completely garrisoned by Roman troops as
    was customary with other conquered lands. In 395 AD, Constantine,
    the first Christian Roman Emperor, and who made Christianity the new
    official religion of the realm, divided the large increasingly
    troubled and difficult to rule Empire into Eastern and Western
    portions.

    Both the Western Empire and the Eastern Empire (Byzantium) had its
    own ruler, located in Rome and Constantinople (called Istanbul since
    1930) respectively. Constantine's splitting of the Christian Roman
    Empire into East and West
    set in motion a long series of important events which have had a
    profound influence on European history.

    By the late 5th Century AD the Western Empire had collapsed and
    Byzantium had been weakened to the point thateffective control of
    the Balkans was abdicated. Warlike tribes of Slavs moving from the
    northeast into the region drove out many of the remaining
    descendants of the Illyrian. The Slavic newcomers were, in turn,
    briefly
    ruled by a tribe of nomadic raiders, the Avars, believed by some to
    be descendants of the Scythians, a barbaric tribe from the far
    eastern Russian steppes, who participated in numerous attacks on
    Constantinople. In 625 AD, a resurgent Byzantium allied itself with
    two largest Slavic tribes already in the Balkans, the Serbs and
    Croats, and gradually pushed the Avars eastward and completely out
    of the old Roman Illyria.

    Around 850 AD, the first Serbian nation under Tsar Vlastimir was
    formed as a Byzantine province ruled by Emperor Michael III. Two
    brothers, Sts. Cyril and Methodius, were sent by the Emperor in
    Constantinople to Christianize the Serbs and other Slavs. To preach
    and to teach in the native Slavonic tongue, Cyril developed a
    script, derived from the ancient Greek, which eventually became what
    is now known as Cyrillic. He based his modified Greek script on the
    phonics of an ancient dialect spoken by the Slavic tribes in
    Macedonia, a dialect known today by Slavic Orthodox
    Christians as "Old Church Slavonic."

    Present day Slovenia and Croatia in the western Balkans eventually
    gravitated to Rome, adopted the Latin alphabet and became Western
    Christians. Later many Slovenes became Protestants during the
    Reformation, but were forced back into Catholicism by the Croats.
    The Serbs and Macedons in the eastern Balkans, as well as the more
    distant Bulgarians and Russians, used the Cyrillic script and became
    Eastern Christians, along with the Ukrainians, Romanians and Greeks,
    under the tutelage of Constantinople. This action has had a
    permanent effect on the culture and history
    of the peoples in these areas. Further accentuating this division,
    in 1054, ongoing bitter doctrinal differences caused a wide and
    still unrepaired schism between the eastern and western Christian
    churches. As a result of this schism, the Western church is the
    Roman Catholic (meaning "universal") Church and the Eastern Church
    is the Eastern Orthodox (meaning "original") Church.

    Orthodox Christian Serbia was a strong independent state by the 11th
    century, as was its Slav neighbor, Croatia. In 1102, Hungary
    absorbed Catholic Croatia, which it would rule for more than 800
    years in conjunction with Austria.  Serbia, often called "Servia" in
    many older publications, was unified and ruled by the Serb Nemanjich
    dynasty of emperors begun by Tsar Stefan Nemanja in 1159 and reached
    its peak size, cultural influence and power during the 24-year reign
    of Tsar Stefan Dushan (1331-55), when it ruled an area from northern
    Greece northward to the Danube and into modern day Hungary. During
    this time a highly developed Serbian literary, political, musical
    and artistic culture, which helped preserve and enrich traditional
    Greek learning, was defined and unified by the Serb Orthodox Church.
    The church was founded by Stefan Nemanja's younger brother, St. Sava
    the patron saint of
    Serbia) in 1219.

    After Tsar Dushan's death in 1355, the Serbian empire gradually
    declined with land and power being divided, King Lear-like, between
    two inept successors, Urosh and Vukasin. The Serb Empire, led by the
    one of the last rulers of the Nemanja dynasty, Tsar Lazar and Crown
    Prince Milos Obilich, was badly defeated by the much larger and more
    mobile forces of the Ottoman Sultan Murad I at the bloody and
    hard-fought Battle of Kosovo. Translated roughly as "Plain of
    Blackbirds" in Vidovdan (St. Vitus' Day) June 28, 1389. This battle,
    which claimed the lives of Lazar, Milos Obilich and Murad, was the
    Waterloo of the old Serb empire. Since that time, the Kosovo region
    known as "Old Serbia", that fateful battle and the many events
    surrounding it have a deep cultural and spiritual meaning to all
    Serbs, even today.

    . In 1453, the Ottomans captured Constantinople and destroyed the
    remnants of Byzantium.Six years later, they swallowed the remnants
    of Serbia and the rest of the Balkans, occupying the region for the
    next 400 years. As part of the Ottoman occupation, the Serbs, who
    the Turks called "giaours" (subhuman dogs), were disarmed and the
    Serb Orthodox Church outlawed. They bitterly refused to submit to
    Turkish rule and convert to Islam.Conversion was required for
    employment and school attendance. They resisted the heavy property
    and poll taxes imposed upon them
    and most importantly, fought bitterly against the notorious annual
    Ottoman "blood tax" ("devshirme" in Turkish) in which young Serb
    children each spring were forcibly taken from their parents. The
    children were converted to Islam and sent to Turkey, never to be
    seen again. Little more than slaves, Serb boys were sent into
    lifelong service in the Ottoman military (Janissaries) while the
    girls were forced into various sultans' harems.

    In response to these and other cruelties and abominations, tens of
    thousands of Serbs fled Serbia proper over the next 300 years. Large
    numbers of them soon settled in the Lika, Slavonija and Krajina
    areas of Austrian and Hungarian ruled south-central Croatia, where
    most of the men over the years served in the Austro-Hungarian army
    as border guards on the Austrian/Ottoman frontier. They were
    rewarded with plots of farmland in the region upon their discharges.

    The Ottoman Turks had reached the outskirts of Vienna in 1683, and
    their imperial high water mark, before beingdefeated by Austrian
    troops (many of whom were ethnic Serb conscripts) led by a Polish
    field marshal, JanSobieski. After a long siege and being gradually
    driven back, Karadjordje ( Black George), a Serb who had served
    with the Austrian army battling the Turks in 1788 and who had been
    deeply inspired by the success of the French aided American
    Revolution against the British, led a large and violent Russian
    supported 1804 insurrection against the Sultan in the area around
    Belgrade. However, Black George's Serb insurgents were forced to
    flee to the northern (Hungarian) side of the Danube in 1813 when
    Russian support was withdrawn.

    Turkish troops then carried out bloody reprisals. This led to
    renewed bitter revolt over the next two years. Ottoman Turkey, under
    increasing economic and military pressure from a rapidly
    industrializing Western Europe, was soon forced to restore important
    rights to the Serbs beginning in 1815. The Serbs' rights to keep and
    bear arms, freedom of assembly, and local home rule, abolished in
    the mid-1400s, were gradually reinstated. By 1830, the Ottomans
    granted full political autonomy to Serbia within the Empire and the
    ban on the Serbian Orthodox Church was lifted. In 1850, neighboring
    Montenegro, a small mountainous nation largely populated by Orthodox
    ethnic Serbs, became independent of the Ottoman Empire and came
    under the rule of a series of Orthodox Christian bishoprics.

    Milosh Obrenovich, a wealthy, self-made Serb merchant who had
    managed to retain his Orthodox Christian faith while gaining a great
    deal of influence with Ottoman authorities, had been given the title
    of prince and granted  limited powers by the Turks in 1817 to rule
    and defend the newly autonomous Serb nation. The country relied on
    an armed peasant militia that was transformed into a standing army,
    the Polje Vojska (Field Army), in the 1830s and led by Russian
    trained officers. In 1839, the increasingly anti-Russian Prince
    Milosh was dethroned and his son, Michael II, acceded to power. At
    that time a larger Field Army of 4000 men and 63 officers, outfitted
    bythe Serb government, was authorized. It was tasked with guarding
    the borders and maintaining internal order. The only uniform was a
    government issued cap and percussion muzzle loading rifles were the
    chief long arm. The Serb National
    Assembly voted Michael II out of power in 1843 and crowned Alexander
    I Karadjordjevich (son of Black George) prince.

    In 1853, the Vojna Tehnicka Zavod (Military Technical Institute) was
    established at Kragujevac in central Serbia.  Initially established
    to cast and test cannons, it would soon become Serbia''s version of
    the USA''s Springfield Armory. In 1858 Prince Alexander was removed
    from the throne by a vote of the Serb National Assembly who also
    returned Milosh I to power, but two years later Milosh died and was
    succeeded by his son, Michael III. Michael''s long-term goal was to
    unite all the Balkan South Slavic peoples in an effort to drive the
    Ottomans back to Constantinople, independent of any assistance of
    the Great Powers of Europe. Each of these powers had their own
    political agendas that were not necessarily favorable to the peoples
    of the region.

    As part of his strategy, Prince Michael established the Narodna
    Vojska (People's Army) in 1861 and the War Ministry a year later.
    The People's Army, a sort of active reserve that supported the Field
    Army, established in the mid-1830s was composed of 17 regiments
    (pukove) each commanded by a colonel (pukovnik.). A regiment was
    stationed in each of then-17 Serb ""okruge"" (provinces). Provinces
    were subdivided into ""srez"" (counties) that provided a battalion
    to each regiment. The smallest administrative area was called an
    ""opstina"" (township). Each township, depending on population size,
    was required to muster one or more companies (rote). Each fighting
    man was responsible for providing his own food, shoes and clothing
    as well as a rifle, 60 rounds of ammo and a bayonet.  Many Serb
    soldiers used sporting pattern rifles with no available bayonet, so
    a short sword with curving blade could
    be substituted.

    All able-bodied males from 20 to 50 years of age were liable for
    service in the People''s Army. The People''s Army was divided into
    two groups, the First Levy (Prvi Ban) consisting of 50,000 troops at
    the time and included those men ages 20-35. The Second Levy (Dvaje
    Ban) of men 36-50 were the reserves used to staff forts and
    garrisons, guard roads and bridges, act as transport personnel and
    support the First Levy. Only the regulars were paid.

    Prince Michael had realized as early as 1863 that Serbia's motley
    collection of small arms types, numbers, quality, serviceability and
    ammunition compatibility were chaotic and woefully inadequate. He
    knew that the average peasant could not afford to buy an adequate
    rifle despite the legal requirement that he do so. In 1863 the War
    Ministry
    had in stock only 7,000 percussion muzzle loading rifles. The
    Russians promised delivery of 70,000 obsolete percussion muskets and
    only 31,000 were delivered after 1865. At that time, the Military
    Technical Institute began converting these rifles to breech loaders.
    These "new" rifles, based on an English design, were called the
    M1867 and nicknamed "Grnovace". Maximum monthly M1867 production was
    5000 weapons.

    By 1870 it became clear that expelling the Turks via a mass armed
    uprising of the Balkan peoples was no longer feasible. In response,
    Prince Milan IV, who had succeeded to the Serb throne after his
    father Michael III''s death in 1868, began to secure foreign
    political and economic support of some of the European Powers to
    help gain Balkan independence from the Turks. Up to this point in
    its 19th century history, the newly autonomous, but not yet
    independent, Serbs had used mainly rifles of the type issued in the
    Ottoman armed forces and second hand purchases smuggled in from
    ports on the Adriatic Sea. Types, calibers and serviceability varied
    widely. Many Serbs could not afford to buy rifles of any kind while
    others still had venerable flintlock muskets (duplonke) and pistols
    (kubare).

    The M1867 conversion was of poor quality, unreliable, and detested
    by those forced to use it in combat. About 1870 some 55,000 Peabody
    dropping or pivoting block breech loading rifles were imported from
    a European source, possibly France, and production machinery was
    acquired. Foreign engineers and technicians, totaling 1500, arrived
    at the Military Technical Institute to oversee production of this
    design. A monthly production rate of 500 rifles was achieved and the
    final production run is unknown. These new Peabody rifles were used
    to arm the People''sArmy First
    Levy and were similar to the model built by the Providence Tool
    Company, Providence R.I., for Rumania a few years earlier. It was
    known as the M1870 "Srpski Pushke" (Serb Rifle) caliber 11.43 mm. It
    is unknown if this cartridge was the same as the Rumanian cartridge.
    By 1875, the People''s Army First Levy numbered between 75,000 and
    90,000 men, the Second Levy about 50,000 men.

    In July 1876, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on Turkey in
    reaction to the widespread mistreatment of Orthodox Christian Serbs
    in neighboring Bosnia-Herzegovina by the local Turkish nobility.
    Only 60,000 troops organized into six divisions were able to take to
    the field. Most were armed with the M1870 Peabody, but many had been
    issued the unpopular M1867, whose unreliability was now legendary
    and was believed to be a major factor in Serb battlefield defeats.
    Worse, an Ottoman vassal, the Khedive of Egypt, had provided troops
    and 40,000 British
    made .450 (11.43mm) Martini-Henry Mark 1 breech loading rifles to
    the Sultan for the war in the Balkans.

    This Peabody derivative proved superior to the existing Serb M1867
    conversion rifles, although most of the Sultan's troops were
    outfitted with the .577 caliber (14.66mm) Snider-Enfield
    breechloader conversion rifle, also of British origin. The Turks
    were so impressed with this rifle that they sought to purchase a
    large quantity from the British who, as it turned out, were unable
    to supply them in the quantity and time frame required. The Sultan
    then turned to Providence Tool Co. in the USA and ordered 600,000 of
    these rifles. Financial problems plagued the Ottomans and delayed
    delivery of the rifles, the shipment not completed until 1882. The
    Turks received sufficient numbers for their 1877 war with Russia.

    Aided by the Bulgarians and Serbs, the Russians, despite losing the
    Battle of Plevna to a large Turkish force,armed with US
    Martini-Henry breech loading single shot and Winchester Model 1866
    and 1873 .44-40 repeating rifles, finally defeated the Turks and
    forced them to accept the Treaty of San Stefano. The despondent
    Sultan did not
    live to see this as he had killed himself with a pair of scissors.

    The major powers of Europe decided that the San Stefano settlement
    was unacceptable for geopolitical reasons, and a revised agreement,
    the Treaty of Berlin, was devised a year later. As a result of this
    revised agreement, Serbia assumed complete independence as a
    kingdom, Turkey lost a large portion of its Balkan territory and an
    autonomous Bulgaria was formed within the Ottoman Empire. Austria
    got control of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro
    received additional territory. The Sanjak, a mostly Moslem area
    between Montenegro and Serbia was put
    under Austrian protection. This event caused a great Serb resentment
    of Austria, one that would help cause World War I.

    It was now time for the newly independent Kingdom of Serbia to
    standardize on a modern military rifle. Wilhelm Mauser from
    Oberndorf, Germany, arrived in Belgrade, capital of Serbia, in July
    1879. He brought samples of his Model 1871 11mm single-shot
    bolt-action breech loading black powder rifle adopted by many of the
    states of the newly unified German Empire. He was a good salesman
    with a first rate, reasonably priced product. To close the deal he
    accepted a string of design changes proposed by a Serb army ordnance
    officer, Major Koka Milovanovic (pronounced mee-lo-VAHN-ovitch.)

    A torch light parade was held in Belgrade celebrating closure of the
    deal. Mauser received an order on 14 February 1881 for 120,000 Model
    1878/80 Mauser Milovanovich rifles. The delay between Mauser's
    initial sales pitch and the Serb government order was due to testing
    of sample rifles, developing and testing modifications, and
    designing and testing the new cartridge. This latest ""Serb Rifle""
    was also known as the "Mauser Koka" or "Mauser Milovanovic," the
    ""M1878/80C" and the"M80C"". The "C" is Cyrillic for "S" which
    stands for Serbian. This use of the Cyrillic "S" in model
    designations, along with its use on all markings on later and now
    extremely rare Serb Mauser models manufactured in Germany and
    Austria, would become standard for most Serb Mausers.

    Among the modifications the Serbs made to the basic Model 1871 was
    the slightly smaller caliber, 10.15mm as opposed to the German 11mm,
    a tapered barrel breech to muzzle, grooves in rifling, a better
    manual safety, improved extractor and ejector. The most noticeable
    feature is the raised receiver tang, to guide the cocking piece
    stud as the bolt is drawn rearward, to prevent the bolt head from
    rotating excessively. The next major purchase was for 4,000 10.15mm
    Mauser Milovanovic Model1884 repeating carbine, known popularly as
    the "M84C". This M84C  used the existing 78/80 type turn bolt action
    and was a short barreled carbine, stocked to the muzzle Mannlicher
    style, with shorter distance rear sight, a pointed pistol grip tip,
    a tubular magazine and turned down bolt handle.

    Despite these notable technical advances, Serbia remained
    chronically short of weapons and funds and was always surrounded by
    potential enemies. It looked to the fellow Orthodox Christian and
    Slavic Russians for assistance, but was wary of becoming dependent
    on them. Between 1878-1914, the Serb government tried to foster good
    diplomatic and trade relations with Tsarist Russia as well as with
    Imperial Germany and the detested Austria- Hungary, but this policy
    was difficult to maintain and was unpopular with many Serbs.

    With the advent of Frenchman Paul Vielle's revolutionary smokeless
    powder in 1886 and his country's adoption of the Lebel M1886 8mm
    bolt-action magazine rifle shortly afterward, Serbia was even
    further degraded in relative military potential. In response, the
    Serbs field tested the German Model 1888 "Commission" Rifle in
    7.92x57mm and the Model 1890 Steyr Mannlicher in 8x50R with its
    straight pull bolt action, but could not get adequate financing to
    purchase these new rifles.

    The Serbs were forced to settle for surplus or outdated weapons
    wherever they could find them. In 1895 Russia supplied an estimated
    60,000 obsolete 10.67mm Berdan Model 1870 and Berdan II single shot
    bolt action black powder rifles to both Serbia and Montenegro. The
    independent Kingdom of Montenegro, which had adopted a similar
    rifle, the 10.66mm Austrian Steyr Werndl Model 1873, received half
    of the Berdans, but included were some of the revised M70/78g rifles
    with longer range sights. It appears further deliveries of these
    surplus Berdans were made after the initial 1895 shipment.

    Smokeless powder and small bore repeating rifles were the cutting
    edge in small arms technology at the time, and by the late 1890s,
    given Serbia's size, geographic position and political stance, a
    pressing necessity. Several manufacturers and designs were
    considered. When financing became available, the German Mauser Model
    1895,
    already in production for Chile, was selected along with the 7x57mm
    rimless cartridge. The Serbs adopted this type, labeling it the
    Model 1899 or "M99C".

    The M99C was made in Berlin by Deutsche Waffen und Munitions
    Fabriken. DWM was formed by the banking firm of Ludwig Loewe which
    owned Waffenfabrik Mauser, an ammunition company and the Ludwig
    Loewe rifle and machine tool works.This reorganization allowed
    Waffenfabrik Mauser to continue operating as an autonomous corporate
    subsidiary, but merged the other assests into a single firm. After
    late 1896 all rifles made at the Loewe plant in Berlin were marked
    on the left receiver wall with Deutsche Waffen und Munitions
    Fabriken, and the Loewe name was no longer used. Only long rifles
    were purchased, but deliveries were insufficent to satisfy Serb
    ordnance department requirements as insufficient funds kept Serbia
    from buying modern rifles fast enough, so M99C series production and
    deliveries were phased in over a period of years, ending in 1906.

    In the wake of the Spanish-American War of 1898, Francis Bannerman a
    prominent New York City war surplus
    dealer, had purchased all the 7x57mm Spanish Model 1893 Mauser
    rifles and Model 1895 carbines captured by U.S.forces from Spanish
    troops in Cuba and the Philippines. During the summer of 1902, as
    work was progressing to produce the new .30 caliber U.S. Rifle Model
    1903, commonly called the "Springfield" after its place of
    development, Springfield Armory in Springfield, Mass. Bannerman
    contracted with that armory to recondition the captured Spanish
    weapons he had purchased at an auction.

    In the late spring of 1903, Bannerman took a sample rifle and
    carbine with him to Europe. He planned to go to Belgrade to sell the
    whole lot of them to Serbia. These Spanish rifles were quite similar
    to the M99C, the chief difference being the bolt face design which
    would not allow the bolts to interchange with existing Serb Mauser
    bolts. Despite this shortcoming, it would have still seemed to be an
    excellent deal for both parties, but, as Balkan history has
    repeatedly demonstrated, other events intervened.

    On the evening of May 29, 1903, the king of Serbia, Alexander
    Obrenovich, whose family had ruled Serbia for nearly 70 years and
    was considered by many Serbs at the time to be a pretender to the
    Serb throne as well as being too pro-German, was brutally killed in
    Belgrade by a cadre of 28 junior army officers along with his wife,
    Queen Draga, a widow and a commoner. These officers were incensed
    with the king's erratic foreign policy that had diplomatically
    isolated Serbia, and were angry about his recent suspension of
    Parliament and the reformist 1901 Constitution. The officers had
    bombed the palace with dynamite, trapped the royal couple behind
    some drapes, shot
    them 48 times, hacked the corpses to pieces with their swords and
    flung the bloody remains from a balcony and into the street. King
    Peter I of the Karadjordjevich line, the grandson of Black George,
    was restored to power.

    When Bannerman arrived in the Serb capital by train from Germany,
    the political situation was so unstable that no deal could be made
    and he left for home to sell off the rifles elsewhere. The next
    group of Serb Mauser rifles, the Model 99/07C, also known as
    "M99/07C" and "M07C", was purchased from the Steyr firm in Austria.
    These were based upon the small ring M99C, but the chambered
    cartridge's base was fully supported by a ring of steel formed by a
    section of shallow flange machined on the barrel breech face mating
    with a complimentary flange on the recessed bolt face as the bolt
    was turned down and locked. This feature may not be present on the
    earliest delivered rifles. The design was modified for some reason,
    or perhaps the improved breeching was thought to rate a new
    designation and a new Model 99/08C was adopted. The 07C and the
    99/08C both were long rifles.

    A new carbine, the M08C, was also purchased from Steyr. It had a
    pointed Mannlicher-style pistol grip stock, a 17.7" (45cm) barrel
    and a Mauser 1895-type adjustable rear tangent sight calibrated from
    300 to 1500 meters. It was issued to police in the central Serb city
    of Nis (pronounced Neesh). Markings on all these Mausers are in Serb
    Cyrillic and they bear the Serbian royal crest and the words "Model
    1908" in Cyrillic on the receiver ring.

    During this period, a cost reduction measure was adopted to convert
    old M1878/80C black powder rifles to five shot single column box
    magazine feed using the standard smokeless powder 7x57mm cartridge,
    a scheme which turned out to be impractical and dangerous. The first
    model, the M80/06C, was proven unsuitable and a strengthened model
    was developed and called the M80/7C or M80/07C. The M80/7C featured
    an adapter fitted to the receiver to provide a bearing point for an
    additional locking lug on the bolt guide rib and charger clip guides
    for the standard Mauser M99C stripper clip are fitted to the
    receiver bridge. To begin production of this conversion, 50,000 new
    7x57mm barrels were ordered from Steyr in 1907.

    Meanwhile, early in 1908, Serbia learned the British and Russian
    governments were conspiring to establish an independent Macedonia.
    Macedona is a mountainous area of the Balkans south of Serbia and
    bordering on Greece, which was still under Ottoman control. Ethnic
    Serbs, Bulgarians, Turks, Albanians, Greeks, Jews, Vlachs and other
    minorities also called Macedonia their home. The Serb, Bulgarian and
    Greek governments all had laid claim to some or all of the area.

    A progressively weakening Turkey became popularly known as the "Sick
    Man of Europe." The once powerful Ottoman Empire was dying fast and
    many expected a fight over the corpse. When it became known in
    Constantinople that Macedonia was about to be lost, a group of
    dissident junior army officers deposed the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II,
    and adopted a new constitution. Calling themselves the "Young
    Turks," these young officers implemented reforms in an attempt to
    modernized and strengthen the empire and army. German advisers were
    brought in to reorganize and upgrade the Turkish military along
    Prussian lines.

    In the wake of events in Turkey, Austria Hungary, with the tacit
    consent of Russia, quickly annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, formally
    incorporating what they had received via the Treaty of Berlin 30
    years before. Belgrade threatened to declare war on Vienna, but
    relented when it learned the Russians had already agreed not to
    contest Austria's action.

    Serb fears of an invasion were escalated in September when Bulgaria
    declared its formal independence from the Ottoman Empire. Belgrade
    believed this act might inspire Sofia to invade and occupy
    Macedonia, an action that would fully surround Serbia with
    potentially hostile enemies. In response to Belgrade''s bitter
    opposition to Vienna''s Bosnian annexation, Austria suspended
    delivery to Serbia of the final batch of 15,000 of the original
    50,000 7x57mm Steyr rifle barrels ordered the year before.

    In reaction to this series of distressing events, on October 8,
    1908, a group of Serb generals, diplomats, businessmen and
    legislators met in Belgrade and formed a clandestine nationalist
    group called "People's Defense," its goal being to bring as many
    Balkan regions populated by ethnic Serbs into a "Greater Serbia."
    The Serbs determined to take over what they considered "Serb
    Macedonia." By 1909, in part due to the success of People's Defense
    propaganda and espionage efforts, the Turks were gradually losing
    what little remained of their once huge Balkan Empire.

    The former subject peoples of the mostly Orthodox Christian areas of
    Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria had by then formed
    independent or autonomous nations. Each nation contained minorities
    of neighboring peoples, and all claimed other lands housing people
    of their own ethnicity and these claims often conflicted. One thing
    they all agreed upon was that the rotting Ottoman Empire had to be
    pushed out of Europe once and for all so that each Balkan nation''s
    territorial claims could be settled and their respective security
    increased.

    War was coming fast. In the wake of these increasing political
    tensions, Serbia realized it needed even more modern rifles and
    Steyr completed deliveries for the 7x57mm Mauser M99/08C in 1910. A
    year before, 10,000 M80/7C conversions had been completed with the
    Steyr 7x57mm caliber barrels first ordered in 1907. Once financing
    could be arranged, the Serb government ordered an improved Model 98
    with the Mauser Co. factory in Oberndorf, Germany, the Model 1910
    (M10C) in 7x57mm. Deliveries of this new "Serb Rifle" began in 1911.

    The M10C looked at first glance like the M99C long rifle, but with a
    tangent rear sight and large ring Mauser 98 action. It featured "the
    ring of steel" full cartridge base support of the M99/08C, a
    standard Mauser 98 five round staggered magazine assembly, and no
    recoil cross bolt in the stock. Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia and
    other Latin American nations purchased this same model. Serb
    Cyrillic markings and the Serb royal crest identify the new "Serb
    Rifle."

    In 1912, Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro signed a series of clandestine
    agreements forming what was called ""The Balkan League."" The
    League's aim was to drive the weakened Ottoman Turks out of Europe
    once and for all. Montenegro declared war on Turkey on October 8,
    1912, followed by Serbia and Bulgaria, and the First Balkan War was
    underway. A tottering Turkey was soon decisively beaten by the
    combined powers of the League. After much wrangling, in May 1913 the
    Treaty of London was signed and the Ottomans lost their few
    remaining European lands except for a small region on the western
    shore of the Dardanelles bordering on Bulgaria and Greece, which it
    retains to this day.

    The land taken from the Ottomans was divided up among the victors.
    Bulgaria thought itself cheated with its small portion of Macedonia
    and subsequently, with Austrian logistical and financial support,
    attacked Serbia and Greece in June 1913. This set off the brief but
    bloody Second Balkan War. Bulgaria lost, and the resulting Treaty of
    Bucharest in August 1913 gave Montenegro the entire Austrian
    controlled Sanjak. Serbia got the lion's share of Macedonia, Greece
    got the coast of Salonika and Kavala and southern Macedonia.
    Smarting from its loss of the Sanjak, Austria-Hungary insisted on
    the establishment of an Austrian ruled Albanian state on the
    territory Serbia and Montenegro had seized during that war.

    As a result of the last action, tensions between Serbia and
    Austria-Hungary reached new heights. By midsummer 1913, the Serbian
    High Command had to face harsh political and logistical realities.
    There was grave internal dissension within the military and between
    the two major Serbian political parties, the ruling hardline
    Radicals and
    the more conciliatory Progressives. Basic foodstuffs, especially
    grain, were in short supply because the mobilization  of tens of
    thousands of young men for both Balkan Wars had left an acute farm
    labor shortage. Many rifles had been lost or rendered unusable.
    Artillery and small arms ammunition stocks were gravely low.
    Ammunition for
    captured nonstandard Bulgarian and Turkish rifles was even scarcer.

    Once again Serbia needed modern infantry rifles, and fast. The
    country had to face the unpleasant fact that obtaining the desired
    new Mauser pattern rifles in the required quantity was no longer a
    viable option. The Mauser Company, via its holding company, DWM,
    which controlled production licensing and sale of Mauser rifles
    worldwide, was German owned and Germany was a formal ally of
    Austria-Hungary. In the event of war with Vienna, the supply of
    rifles and spare parts from Steyr would be cut off. Moreover, there
    was insufficient hard currency to pay for these new rifles, and, to
    make matters worse, the Serb government under Radical Party Prime
    Minister Nikola Pasich had terminated the Serbs' trade agreement
    with  Austria-Hungary that would have made a cost-effective deal
    possible.

    Given these numerous unfavorable conditions, the Serb High Command
    decided that, as a stopgap measure, it would temporarily rearm with
    the "Ruski Pushka" (Russian Rifle) the Model 1891 Mosin Nagant bolt
    action rifle. It would become Serbia's new "substitute standard" as
    soon as adequate quantities could be obtained. It is not known how
    these rifles were paid for, but Russia began supplying or had
    promised to supply them. However, once again, political events
    suddenly intervened to disrupt these plans.

    In Sarajevo, on Vidovdan, June 28, 1914, a Serb, Gavrilo Princip,
    shot and killed Crown Prince Ferdinand, heir to the Habsburg
    (Austro-Hungarian) throne, along with his wife Sophie. He used the
    popular Belgian made Browning Model 1910 pistol in 9mm Browning
    Short (.380 ACP.) Several of these handguns had been supplied by
    Serbian
    military intelligence, on orders of its commander, one Col. Dragutin
    "Apis" Dimitrijevich, to a three year old Serb nationalist movement
    named "Unity or Death," commonly called "The Black Hand." The Black
    Hand was a clandestine group of ethnic Serb nationalist conspirators
    scattered throughout Austria-Hungary's Balkan provinces of which
    Princip, who died of tuberculosis in an Austrian prison a few months
    before W.W. I ended, was a member. Four of the pistols recovered by
    Sarajevo police were serial numbered 19074, 19075, 19120, and 19126.
    The pistols were "liberated" from an Austrian museum in 1945 and are
    presently believed to be somewhere in the U.S.A.

    In reaction to the assassination, Vienna issued an ultimatum to
    Belgrade. Serbia approached Russia for material support while
    rejecting Vienna's demands. Serbia was still in poor shape
    economically and the military forces were gravely short of vital
    supplies of all types. The Tsar's government promised 120,000 M1891
    Mosin Nagant rifles to be delivered in August, despite the fact that
    Russia itself was also chronically short of adequate numbers of
    small arms. It is likely most of these came from Russian Army
    arsenals and were not new production. It is unknown whether any
    rifles were delivered before August 1914 when the promised 120,000
    rifles showed up in Serbia. Further deliveries followed, but no
    information is available on quantities. A British Army document from
    early 1915 had reported that 150,000 Russian Mosin Nagants were in
    Serb service at that time.

    When war with the Central Powers, Germany, Austria-Hungary and
    Bulgaria to be followed by Turkey, began on 28 July 1914, Serbia was
    able to field an estimated 425,000 trained and equipped troops. The
    military intelligence department of the Imperial Army of
    Austro-Hungary estimated that a minimum shortfall of 150,000
    serviceable military rifles, needed to arm called up reservists,
    existed in Serbia at the start of the war. The actual number in fact
    was well over 200,000. Roughly 25% of all Serb troops lacked rifles
    of any kind and other soldiers were armed with obsolete black powder
    rifles for which little ammo or spare parts were available.

    The regular Serbian Army and the First Levy, male draftees between
    21-30 years of age serving 18 months of active duty, were supplied
    the following rifles, Serb Mausers M10C, M99C, M99/07C, M99/08C,
    Carbine M08C and some Russian M1891 Mosin-Nagant rifles in 7.62x54R.
    They were also outfitted with Browning M1910 .380 ACP and Mauser
    M1896 7.63mm "Broom handle" autoloading pistols and 7x57mm Model
    1909 Maxim water-cooled, belt fed medium machine guns as available.

    The Second Levy, reservists between 31-40 years of age who had
    already completed their 18 months of active duty, was issued the
    following weapons, M80/7C rifle, M95 carbine, M90T, M99T, M03T, M10T
    rifles, the M05T carbine and Austrian Steyr Mannlicher M1895 rifles
    and carbines in 8x50R. The "T series" of Mauser rifles and carbines
    had been captured from the Turks during the First Balkan War and
    converted from 7.65mm to 7x57mm. The Steyr Mannlichers had been
    captured from the Bulgarians in the Second Balkan War. The Regular
    Army along with the First and Second Levies constituted the Field
    Army. Only regulars and First Levy would have uniforms, ammo pouches
    and belts.

    The Third Levy (Trije Ban), composed of reservists aged 41-50, was
    issued any remaining Second Levy weapons plus surplus 10.67mm
    Russian Berdan M1870 rifles. An estimated 75,000 of these Berdans
    were accounted for in 1909, but after the two Balkan Wars, some
    50,000 serviceable examples of these rifles would be a generous
    estimate. In addition, Mauser Milovanovic M1878/80C, Winchester 1866
    & 1873 in .44-40, Sniders, Gras, Peabodys, Martini Henrys, M87T's,
    anything that could shoot, were put into service.

    The Chetniks, irregular local village forces, usually not uniformed
    and sometimes barefoot, were armed chiefly with captured
    Austrian-made Bulgarian Steyr Mannlicher M95 rifles and carbines at
    the outbreak of war. Ammunition availability was a key factor in
    issuing rifles. Sometimes only one packet, 20 cartridges in four
    five-round clips, or one round per rifle, was issued.

    The Military Technical Institute could turn out 120,000 rounds of
    the standard 7x57mm per day, but periodically had to switch
    production over to make various calibers of artillery shells,
    obsolete 10.15mm black powder rounds, 8x50R cartridges for captured
    Bulgarian Steyr-Mannlicher rifles as well as prepare to manufacture
    the 7.62x54R cartridges for the proposed new substitute standard
    Russian Mosin-Nagant rifle.

    Ammunition availability also dictated which type rifle would be
    issued to each unit. Should a squad or platoon be transferred to
    another company or battalion for example, its members had to trade
    their rifles for the type in issue in the new parent unit to avoid
    logistical problems. The Military Technical Institute was, by that
    time not only Serbia''s chief arsenal, but was also the largest
    manufacturer in the country. It turned out machine tools and gauges,
    repaired artillery guns and small arms, produced horse drawn carts,
    wagons and saddlery, crafted small arms
    and artillery ammunition and also acted as the Serb military's
    ordnance school. It employed 300 full-time production workers in
    addition to the technical staff and army personnel assigned there.

    Meanwhile, initial Serb battlefield successes against invading
    Austrians, whose commander, Gen. Oskar Potiorek, bragged at war''s
    outbreak he would have little trouble conquering ""that kingdom of
    pig breeders"", had secured them large quantities of
    Steyr-Mannlicher M1888/90 and M1895 8x50R rifles and carbines, Steyr
    Model 1907 and 1912 autoloading pistols, Schwarzlose M1905 and M1912
    belt fed water-cooled medium machine guns in the same caliber as
    well as vast stocks of ammunition for all of them. However, as time
    passed, the Serbs, facing the ravages
    of typhus and cholera combined with persisting severe food, clothing
    and ammunition shortages, lost their capital city, Belgrade, to
    attacking Austrian troops on December 2, 1914. Ironically this was
    the birthday of Austrian emperor Franz Josef.

    Despite their desperate straits, the battered and outnumbered but
    valiant Serbs the next day launched one last desperate offensive
    against the now, overconfident Austrian forces. Incredibly enough
    after 10 days of ferocious fighting, they drove a stunned Gen.
    Potiorek and all of his remaining troops back across the Danube.
    Belgrade was recaptured on December 15. Austria-Hungary had
    sustained more than 100,000 casualties and lost even more weapons
    valuable to the Serbs, but the badly weakened Serbs could not take
    full advantage of their surprising victory, a situation that caused
    a nearly year-long stalemate in the region. By February 1915, about
    50,000 serviceable Austrian M88/90 and M95 rifles and carbines with
    adequate stores of captured 8x50R ammunition were in formal Serb issue.

    Despite these slight improvements in the Serbs' logistical
    situation, in October 1915, their still rebuilding army was
    eventually smashed after being surprise attacked by an overwhelming
    combined force of invading German, Austrian and Bulgarian troops.
    Some 150,000 Serb fighting men successfully embarked on a long and
    difficult retreat
    southward across the mountains of south Serbia and Macedonia into
    Greece where the Allies reequipped them with significant amounts of
    French gear such as the Rifle M1907/15 in 8mm Lebel and some
    Chauchat and Hotchkiss machine guns in the same caliber. The French
    also supplied a large number of Winchester Model 1907 .351 caliber
    semiautomatic carbines that France had initially purchased from the
    USA as aircraft armament before its airplanes were fully fitted with
    machine guns. These Winchester carbines were used by Serb special
    operations troops.

    In September 1916, the refreshed, reorganized and refitted Serb
    armies resumed combat operations against the German, Austrian and
    Bulgarian occupiers, driving slowly northward into Macedonia and
    back through Serbia proper until the Central Powers surrendered 26
    months later. The Allies supported formation of a unified multi
    ethnic South Slav state as was stated in Point 11 of Woodrow
    Wilson's "Fourteen Points," but Italy had been promised lands
    inhabited by many of these peoples as part of the deal for entering
    the war on the Allied side in 1915. Many Croats and Slovenes
    actively supported unification while other members of those two
    groups opposed it on grounds the new union would be dominated by Serbs.

    The fiercely independent King of Montenegro, Nicholas I, fearful of
    Croat and Slovene influence in the new unified nation, abdicated his
    throne and left the country shortly after W.W. I ended. The Serb
    Army formed the nucleus upon which the new army of the unified
    kingdom would be built. The elderly King of Serbia, Peter I
    Karadjordjevich, who had been in power since 1903, assumed the
    throne of the new Kingdom, although his son, Alexander II, had ruled
    as regent since 1914. Alexander II formally assumed the throne upon
    Peter I's death in 1921.

    Serviceable military small arms remained in short supply in the
    newly formed nation. All the previously discussed rifles were held
    in greatly diminished numbers and these were far the worse for wear.
    Additionally, war booty from the Central Powers included many of the
    following types of rifles, the Mannlicher M1886 11mm, M88, M88/90,
    M95, all in 8x50R, and Mauser M1912 7x57mm, German Gew. 98 and Kar.
    98a in 7.92x57mm as well as various Turkish Mauser rifles in 7.65mm.
    Rifles of Allied Powers lost to Central Powers and recaptured by the
    Serbs consisted of Mosin Nagant M1891s 7.62x54R, 11mm M1874 Gras
    andKropatscheks , M1891 Mosin Nagants converted to 8x50R by Austria,
    various Italian M1891 series Mannlicher Carcano rifles and carbines
    in 6.5x52mm, Romanian Model 1893 Mannlichers in 6.5x53R. Rifles of
    acceded states included the Montenegrin Steyr Werndl M1873 10.66mm
    rifles, 10.67mm Berdan II and 7.62x54mmR Mosin Nagant M1891 rifles.

    In the wake of the hard logistical lessons learned in 1914-18 and in
    the presence of scores of types of captured small arms, Yugoslavia
    (like Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece and Poland) decided
    to standardize on the Mauser 98 type rifle in the German rimless
    7.92x57mm caliber. Existing Serb and Turkish Mausers in 7x57mm and
    7.65mm respectively with badly worn or pitted bores could be
    rechambered and rebored to 7.92mm and restored to service using
    existing barrels, a major savings in money, effort and time.

    In 1922, 50,000 "short action" 98 type short rifles were purchased
    from Fabrique National (FN) in Liege, Belgium along with machine
    tooling and a technical support package to manufacture these rifles
    at Kragujevac. FN engineers and technicians set up the Military
    Technical Institute production line for an upgraded pattern of this
    weapon, the well-known Serb M1924 model "short rifle", after the FN
    design was modified by Yugoslav ordnance engineers to incorporate
    the full cartridge base support feature on the M10C bolt head and
    also to allow the safety switch to be
    applied with the bolt uncocked. It was planned that serviceable
    existing surplus rifles would be reworked as closely as possible to
    the new Model 1924 pattern.

    As always, funds were in short supply, so, to cut costs, existing
    Serb M10C and M99C Mauser rifles were shortened to the M24 short
    rifle dimensional specifications and rebored to 7.92x57mm. Remaining
    Turkish Mausers from the Model 90T upward as well as existing
    supplies of Austrian Steyr Mannlicher rifles from the Model 1888/90
    onward were also reworked into short rifles generally resembling the
    M24 specifications and converted to 7.92x57mm. The Steyr-Mannlicher
    Model 1895 was shortened and renamed the M95M, the second ""M""
    denoting Mauser, as it was
    converted to use standard Mauser stripper clips, given a tangent
    Mauser rear sight while its outward appearance was made to resemble
    that of the standard M24 Mauser short rifle.

    In 1925, another 50,000 Mauser M24 short rifles were ordered from
    FN. Also around this time, Austria delivered a large number of
    surplus 7x57mmM1912 Steyr Mausers it had used to arm reserve troops
    in W.W.I. These were Mausers originally destined for Mexico,
    Colombia and Venezuela but W.W. I broke out in 1914 and halted
    deliveries to these nations. Austria Hungary had considered a
    transition to the 7x57mm cartridge shortly before 1914 and had even
    produced a prototype Mannlicher-Schoenauer short rifle for
    production but war's onset canceled the plan. A
    few hundred of these Mannlicher-Schoenauers were allegedly made but
    only two specimens are known to exist today.

    Yugoslavia shortened and converted these Steyr Mauser M1912s to the
    accepted general 7.92x57mm M24 pattern,wiping the Austrian markings
    and replacing them with the Yugoslav royal crest. These were marked
    "Model 24B", the Cyrillic "B" corresponding to the Latin "V", on the
    receiver ring below the crest. The actual definition of the "V"
    designation is unknown; some claim it stands for Vojna (army) while
    others claim it stands for Vien, the Serbo-Croat pronunciation of
    Vienna, from where these particular Steyr Mausers were originally
    shipped. In 1929,
    Yugoslavia purchased an additional 40,000 standard Model 24 (Vz24)
    short rifles in 7.92mm from Ceskoslovenska Zbrojovka (CZ) in Brno,
    Czechoslovakia.


9
2006 / Re: Ask Gary Jenkins: [LF]
« on: May 01, 2006, 10:34:36 AM »
I understand they do not answer PMs.  They "either do or do not do" ;)

10
2006 / Re: Ask Gary Jenkins: [LF]
« on: May 01, 2006, 09:26:10 AM »
You have any opinion as to what is going on at LF?  Are the background guys working or did they finally pull the plug?

11
2006 / Re: Ask Gary Jenkins: [LF]
« on: May 01, 2006, 09:24:43 AM »
I don't think you are crazy about server problems.  Even American Express has caught a virus.

12
2006 / Re: Ask Gary Jenkins: [LF]
« on: April 29, 2006, 05:10:24 AM »
Most of them are.  I assume this fellow just has had a string of bad luck this week and losing his e-mail server turned him temporarily paranoid.

13
2006 / Re: Ask Gary Jenkins: [LF]
« on: April 29, 2006, 05:04:15 AM »
I notice that "Control Panel" seems to be at least half working now, suggesting that the boyz are working.  Its possible that they will not be able to get it back working as before. 

The fellow who had two fora shared with renseradio crash when renseradio's server went down has still not been able to get his bulletin boards working.  And to top it off he lost his e-mail server today and is beginning to wonder if the whole web is under attack.

14
2006 / Re: Libertyforum is down (for me) [LF]
« on: April 28, 2006, 02:49:36 AM »
Any chance that Renseradio's server crash affected LF?  They have also been out for two days.

15
2006 / Re: An Analysis of the LF Outage Apr26-27¦ 2006 - Part 1 [LF]
« on: April 28, 2006, 01:53:42 AM »
Just got a clue to what might have happened.  Renseradio has been out for two days because their server crashed.  While I doubt LF shares the server (others who do, of course, crashed), LF is always getting linked to Rense, like it or not. 

16
Why would melting cause cooling?  And if it did, why wouldn't the ice sheets grow larger again?

17
General / Re: Who Made it from LF (and who didn't yet)
« on: February 28, 2006, 02:27:44 AM »
Notice I'm not on the list.  Perhaps because I don't post in the vanity section very often.

18
Conspiracy then and now. / The Case for Impeachment
« on: February 28, 2006, 02:13:53 AM »
The Case for Impeachment
    By Lewis H. Lapham
    Harper's Magazine

    Monday 27 February 2006

Why we can no longer afford George W. Bush.
A country is not only what it does - it is also what it puts up with, what it tolerates.
-Kurt Tucholsky


    On December 18 of last year, Congressman John Conyers Jr. (D., Mich.) introduced into the House of Representatives a resolution inviting it to form "a select committee to investigate the Administration's intent to go to war before congressional authorization, manipulation of pre-war intelligence, encouraging and countenancing torture, retaliating against critics, and to make recommendations regarding grounds for possible impeachment." Although buttressed two days previously by the news of the National Security Agency's illegal surveillance of the American citizenry, the request attracted little or no attention in the press-nothing on television or in the major papers, some scattered applause from the left-wing blogs, heavy sarcasm on the websites flying the flags of the militant right. The nearly complete silence raised the question as to what it was the congressman had in mind, and to whom did he think he was speaking? In time of war few propositions would seem as futile as the attempt to impeach a president whose political party controls the Congress; as the ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee stationed on Capitol Hill for the last forty years, Representative Conyers presumably knew that to expect the Republican caucus in the House to take note of his invitation, much less arm it with the power of subpoena, was to expect a miracle of democratic transformation and rebirth not unlike the one looked for by President Bush under the prayer rugs in Baghdad. Unless the congressman intended some sort of symbolic gesture, self-serving and harmless, what did he hope to prove or to gain? He answered the question in early January, on the phone from Detroit during the congressional winter recess.

    "To take away the excuse," he said, "that we didn't know." So that two or four or ten years from now, if somebody should ask, "Where were you, Conyers, and where was the United States Congress?" when the Bush Administration declared the Constitution inoperative and revoked the license of parliamentary government, none of the company now present can plead ignorance or temporary insanity, can say that "somehow it escaped our notice" that the President was setting himself up as a supreme leader exempt from the rule of law.

    A reason with which it was hard to argue but one that didn't account for the congressman's impatience. Why not wait for a showing of supportive public opinion, delay the motion to impeach until after next November's elections? Assuming that further investigation of the President's addiction to the uses of domestic espionage finds him nullifying the Fourth Amendment rights of a large number of his fellow Americans, the Democrats possibly could come up with enough votes, their own and a quorum of disenchanted Republicans, to send the man home to Texas. Conyers said:

    "I don't think enough people know how much damage this administration can do to their civil liberties in a very short time. What would you have me do? Grumble and complain? Make cynical jokes? Throw up my hands and say that under the circumstances nothing can be done? At least I can muster the facts, establish a record, tell the story that ought to be front-page news."

    Which turned out to be the purpose of his House Resolution 635-not a high-minded tilting at windmills but the production of a report, 182 pages, 1,022 footnotes, assembled by Conyers's staff during the six months prior to its presentation to Congress, that describes the Bush Administration's invasion of Iraq as the perpetration of a crime against the American people. It is a fair description. Drawing on evidence furnished over the last four years by a sizable crowd of credible witnesses-government officials both extant and former, journalists, military officers, politicians, diplomats domestic and foreign-the authors of the report find a conspiracy to commit fraud, the administration talking out of all sides of its lying mouth, secretly planning a frivolous and unnecessary war while at the same time pretending in its public statements that nothing was further from the truth.[1] The result has proved tragic, but on reading through the report's corroborating testimony I sometimes could counter its inducements to mute rage with the thought that if the would-be lords of the flies weren't in the business of killing people, they would be seen as a troupe of off-Broadway comedians in a third-rate theater of the absurd. Entitled "The Constitution in Crisis; The Downing Street Minutes and Deception, Manipulation, Torture, Retribution, and Coverups in the Iraq War," the Conyers report examines the administration's chronic abuse of power from more angles than can be explored within the compass of a single essay. The nature of the administration's criminal DNA and modus operandi, however, shows up in a usefully robust specimen of its characteristic dishonesty.

 


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    That President George W. Bush comes to power with the intention of invading Iraq is a fact not open to dispute. Pleased with the image of himself as a military hero, and having spoken, more than once, about seeking revenge on Saddam Hussein for the tyrant's alleged attempt to "kill my Dad," he appoints to high office in his administration a cadre of warrior intellectuals, chief among them Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, known to be eager for the glories of imperial conquest.[2] At the first meeting of the new National Security Council on January 30, 2001, most of the people in the room discuss the possibility of preemptive blitzkrieg against Baghdad.[3] In March the Pentagon circulates a document entitled "Foreign Suitors for Iraqi Oil Field Contracts"; the supporting maps indicate the properties of interest to various European governments and American corporations. Six months later, early in the afternoon of September 11, the smoke still rising from the Pentagon's western facade, Secretary Rumsfeld tells his staff to fetch intelligence briefings (the "best info fast...go massive; sweep it all up; things related and not") that will justify an attack on Iraq. By chance the next day in the White House basement, Richard A. Clarke, national coordinator for security and counterterrorism, encounters President Bush, who tells him to "see if Saddam did this." Nine days later, at a private dinner upstairs in the White House, the President informs his guest, the British prime minister, Tony Blair, that "when we have dealt with Afghanistan, we must come back to Iraq."

    By November 13, 2001, the Taliban have been rousted out of Kabul in Afghanistan, but our intelligence agencies have yet to discover proofs of Saddam Hussein's acquaintance with Al Qaeda.[4] President Bush isn't convinced. On November 21, at the end of a National Security Council meeting, he says to Secretary Rumsfeld, "What have you got in terms of plans for Iraq?...I want you to get on it. I want you to keep it secret."

    The Conyers report doesn't return to the President's focus on Iraq until March 2002, when it finds him peering into the office of Condoleezza Rice, the national security advisor, to say, "Fuck Saddam. We're taking him out." At a Senate Republican Policy lunch that same month on Capitol Hill, Vice President Dick Cheney informs the assembled company that it is no longer a question of if the United States will attack Iraq, it's only a question of when. The vice president doesn't bring up the question of why, the answer to which is a work in progress. By now the administration knows, or at least has reason to know, that Saddam Hussein had nothing to do with the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington, that Iraq doesn't possess weapons of mass destruction sufficiently ominous to warrant concern, that the regime destined to be changed poses no imminent threat, certainly not to the United States, probably not to any country defended by more than four batteries of light artillery. Such at least is the conclusion of the British intelligence agencies that can find no credible evidence to support the theory of Saddam's connection to Al Qaeda or international terrorism; "even the best survey of WMD programs will not show much advance in recent years on the nuclear, missile and CW/BW weapons fronts..." A series of notes and memoranda passing back and forth between the British Cabinet Office in London and its correspondents in Washington during the spring and summer of 2002 address the problem of inventing a pretext for a war so fondly desired by the Bush Administration that Sir Richard Dearlove, head of Britain's MI-6, finds the interested parties in Washington fixing "the intelligence and the facts...around the policy." The American enthusiasm for regime change, "undimmed" in the mind of Condoleezza Rice, presents complications.

    Although Blair has told Bush, probably in the autumn of 2001, that Britain will join the American military putsch in Iraq, he needs "legal justification" for the maneuver-something noble and inspiring to say to Parliament and the British public. No justification "currently exists." Neither Britain nor the United States is being attacked by Iraq, which eliminates the excuse of self-defense; nor is the Iraqi government currently sponsoring a program of genocide. Which leaves as the only option the "wrong-footing" of Saddam. If under the auspices of the United Nations he can be presented with an ultimatum requiring him to show that Iraq possesses weapons that don't exist, his refusal to comply can be taken as proof that he does, in fact, possess such weapons.[5]

    Over the next few months, while the British government continues to look for ways to "wrong-foot" Saddam and suborn the U.N., various operatives loyal to Vice President Cheney and Secretary Rumsfeld bend to the task of fixing the facts, distributing alms to dubious Iraqi informants in return for map coordinates of Saddam's monstrous weapons, proofs of stored poisons, of mobile chemical laboratories, of unmanned vehicles capable of bringing missiles to Jerusalem.[6]

    By early August the Bush Administration has sufficient confidence in its doomsday story to sell it to the American public. Instructed to come up with awesome text and shocking images, the White House Iraq Group hits upon the phrase "mushroom cloud" and prepares a White Paper describing the "grave and gathering danger" posed by Iraq's nuclear arsenal.[7] The objective is three-fold-to magnify the fear of Saddam Hussein, to present President Bush as the Christian savior of the American people, a man of conscience who never in life would lead the country into an unjust war, and to provide a platform of star-spangled patriotism for Republican candidates in the November congressional elections.[8]

 


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Conyers report doesn't lack for further instances of the administration's misconduct, all of them noted in the press over the last three years-misuse of government funds, violation of the Geneva Conventions, holding without trial and subjecting to torture individuals arbitrarily designated as "enemy combatants," etc.-but conspiracy to commit fraud would seem reason enough to warrant the President's impeachment. Before reading the report, I wouldn't have expected to find myself thinking that such a course of action was either likely or possible; after reading the report, I don't know why we would run the risk of not impeaching the man. We have before us in the White House a thief who steals the country's good name and reputation for his private interest and personal use; a liar who seeks to instill in the American people a state of fear; a televangelist who engages the United States in a never-ending crusade against all the world's evil, a wastrel who squanders a vast sum of the nation's wealth on what turns out to be a recruiting drive certain to multiply the host of our enemies. In a word, a criminal-known to be armed and shown to be dangerous. Under the three-strike rule available to the courts in California, judges sentence people to life in jail for having stolen from Wal-Mart a set of golf clubs or a child's tricycle. Who then calls strikes on President Bush, and how many more does he get before being sent down on waivers to one of the Texas Prison Leagues?

 


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The above is a brief excerpt from the complete essay, available in the March 2006 issue of Harper's Magazine.

 


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Notes

    1. The report borrows from hundreds of open sources that have become a matter of public record-newspaper accounts, television broadcasts (Frontline, Meet the Press, Larry King Live, 60 Minutes, etc.), magazine articles (in The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, The New York Review of Books), sworn testimony in both the Senate and House of Representatives, books written by, among others, Bob Woodward, George Packer, Richard A. Clarke, James Mann, Mark Danner, Seymour Hersh, David Corn, James Bamford, Hans Blix, James Risen, Ron Suskind, Joseph Wilson. As the congressman had said, "Everything in plain sight; it isn't as if we don't know." [Back]

    2. In January of 1998 the neoconservative Washington think tank The Project for the New American Century (which counts among its founding members Dick Cheney) sent a letter to Bill Clinton demanding "the removal of Saddam Hussein's regime from power" with a strong-minded "willingness to undertake military action." Together with Rumsfeld, six of the other seventeen signatories became members of the Bush's first administration-Elliott Abrams (now George W. Bush's deputy national security advisor), Richard Armitage (deputy secretary of state from 2001 to 2005), John Bolton (now U.S. ambassador to the U.N.), Richard Perle (chairman of the Defense Policy Board from 2001 to 2003), Paul Wolfowitz (deputy secretary of defense from 2001 to 2005), Robert Zoellick (now deputy secretary of state). President Clinton responded to the request by signing the Iraq Liberation Act, for which Congress appropriated $97 million for various clandestine operations inside the borders of Iraq. Two years later, in September 2000, The Project for the New American Century issued a document noting that the "unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification" for the presence of the substantial American force in the Persian Gulf. [Back]

    3. In a subsequent interview on 60 Minutes, Paul O'Neill, present in the meeting as the newly appointed secretary of the treasury, remembered being surprised by the degree of certainty: "From the very beginning, there was a conviction that Saddam Hussein was a bad person and that he needed to go.... It was all about finding a way to do it." [Back]

    4. As early as September 20, Douglas Feith, undersecretary of defense for policy, drafted a memo suggesting that in retaliation for the September 11 attacks the United States should consider hitting terrorists outside the Middle East in the initial offensive, or perhaps deliberately selecting a non-Al Qaeda target like Iraq. [Back]

    5. Abstracts of the notes and memoranda, known collectively as "The Downing Street Minutes," were published in the Sunday Times (London) in May 2005; their authenticity was undisputed by the British government. [Back]

    6. The work didn't go unnoticed by people in the CIA, the Pentagon, and the State Department accustomed to making distinctions between a well-dressed rumor and a naked lie. In the spring of 2004, talking to a reporter from Vanity Fair, Greg Thielmann, the State Department officer responsible for assessing the threats of nuclear proliferation, said, "The American public was seriously misled. The Administration twisted, distorted and simplified intelligence in a way that led Americans to seriously misunderstand the nature of the Iraq threat. I'm not sure I can think of a worse act against the people in a democracy than a President distorting critical classified information." [Back]

    7. The Group counted among its copywriters Karl Rove, senior political strategist, Andrew Card, White House chief of staff, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, and Lewis "Scooter" Libby, Dick Cheney's chief of staff. [Back]

    8. Card later told the New York Times that "from a marketing point of view...you don't introduce new products in August." [Back]

19
9/11 / Re: 9/11 ATTACKS (Media is finally asking the important questions)
« on: February 26, 2006, 03:50:32 PM »
I am not a Muslim if that's your question. 

20
9/11 / Re: 9/11 ATTACKS (Media is finally asking the important questions)
« on: February 26, 2006, 01:21:48 PM »
Secret robot planes flew the passengers to secret location where they were loaded unto another plane and dumped in the sea for the fish to eat them. Meanwhile, back in NY the demo crew coordinated the holograms with the demolitions to make it appear as if actual planes crashed into the WTC.

KIM, though, that the original Operation Northwoods was complex with drones substituting for actual planes, etc.  And unless I was a terrible eyewitness to the attack on the North Tower, there was no sound of impact or explosion.  The only sound was that of a plane (or something) flying in very low.

Or, Jewish agent Daniel Lewin blew the pilot's brain across the windscreen, as did his countertpart on 175(probably Alona Abraham, the woman hijacker on 9-11 that we know of) -- they then took over the planes and crashed them into the WTC.

If so, it was the first time that Jews used their own bodies in suicide attacks.

Mossad might have been involved but not as the sole intelligence agency.

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