Author Topic: Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree  (Read 1669 times)

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Offline dominique

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Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree
« on: October 10, 2013, 10:20:42 AM »
Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree
By NICHOLAS WADE
Published: October 8, 2013

Over the last 15 years geneticists have identified links between the world’s Jewish communities that point to a common ancestry as well as a common religion. Still, the origin of one of the most important Jewish populations, the Ashkenazim of Central and Eastern Europe, has remained a mystery.

A new genetic analysis has now filled in another piece of the origins puzzle, pointing to European women as the principal female founders, and to the Jewish community of the early Roman empire as the possible source of the Ashkenazi ancestors.

The finding establishes that the women who founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community of Europe were not from the Near East, as previously supposed, and reinforces the idea that many Jewish communities outside Israel were founded by single men who married and converted local women.

The study, published Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, is based on a genetic analysis of maternal lineages. A team led by Martin B. Richards of the University of Huddersfield in England took a fresh look at Ashkenazi lineages by decoding the entire mitochondrial genomes of people from Europe and the Near East.

Earlier DNA studies showed that Jewish communities around the world had been founded by men whose Y chromosomes bore DNA patterns typically found in the Near East. But there was a surprise when geneticists turned to examine the women founders by analyzing mitochondrial DNA, a genetic element that is separate from the main human genome and inherited just through the female line.

Unlike the Y chromosomes, the mitochondrial DNA showed no common pattern. In several of the smaller Jewish communities it clearly resembled that of the surrounding population, suggesting a migration pattern in which the men had arrived single, perhaps as traders, and taken local wives who then converted to Judaism.

But it wasn’t clear whether or not this was true of the Ashkenazim. Mitochondrial DNA tends to change quite rapidly, or to drift, as geneticists say, and the Ashkenazi DNA has drifted so far it was hard to pinpoint its origin.

This uncertainty seemed to be resolved by a survey published in 2006. Its authors reported that the four most common mitochondrial DNA lineages among Ashkenazis came from the Near East, implying that just four Jewish women were the ancestresses of nearly half of today’s Ashkenazim. Under this scenario, it seemed more likely that the Ashkenazim were the result of a migration of whole communities of men and women together.

But decoding DNA was still quite expensive at that time and the authors of the 2006 survey analyzed only a short length of the mitochondrial DNA, containing just 1,000 or so of its 16,600 DNA units, in all their subjects.

The four mitochondrial lineages common among Ashkenazis are now very rare elsewhere in the Near East and Europe, making it hard to identify with certainty the lineages from which they originated.

With the entire mitochondrial genome in hand, Dr. Richards could draw up family trees with a much finer resolution than before. His trees show that the four major Ashkenazi lineages in fact form clusters within descent lines that were established in Europe some 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. The same is true of most of the minor lineages.

“Thus the great majority of Ashkenazi maternal lineages were not brought from the Levant, as commonly supposed,” Dr. Richards and colleagues conclude in their paper. Overall, at least 80 percent of Ashkenazi maternal ancestry comes from women indigenous to Europe, and 8 percent from the Near East, with the rest uncertain, the researchers estimate.

Dr. Richards estimates that the four major lineages became incorporated into the Ashkenazi community at least 2,000 years ago. A large Jewish community flourished in Rome at this time and included many converts. This community could have been the source of both the Ashkenazim of Europe and the Sephardim of Spain and Portugal, given that the two groups have considerable genetic commonality, Dr. Richards said.

Doron M. Behar, of the Gene by Gene company in Houston and a co-author of the 2006 survey, said he disagreed with Dr. Richards’ conclusions but declined to explain his reasons, saying they had to appear first in a scientific journal.

David B. Goldstein, a geneticist at Duke University who first detected the similarity between the founding mothers of Jewish communities and their host populations, said the new analysis was well done but that the estimate of 80 percent European origin for the Ashkenazi maternal lineages was not statistically justified, given that mitochondrial DNA lineages rise and fall in a random way.

A recent analysis based on the whole genomes, not just mitochondrial DNA, of Jewish communities around the world noted that almost all overlap with non-Jewish populations of the Levant, “consistent with an ancestral Levantine contribution to much of contemporary Jewry.” Dr. Richards said that the finding was compatible with his own, given that the Levantine contribution was not that great.

Another recent study, also based on whole genomes, found that a mixture of European ancestries ranged from 30 percent to 60 percent among Ashkenazi and Sephardi populations, with Northern Italians showing the greatest proximity to Jews of any Europeans.

The authors of this study in Nature Communications, led by Gil Atzmon of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, noted that there had been mass conversions to Judaism in the early Roman empire, resulting in some 6 million citizens, or 10 percent of the population, practicing Judaism.

Dr. Richards sees this as a possible time and place at which the four European lineages could have entered the Jewish community, becoming very numerous much later as the Ashkenazi population in northern Europe expanded from around 25,000 in 1300 A.D., to more than 8.5 million at the beginning of the 20th century.

http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/09/science/ashkenazi-origins-may-be-with-european-women-study-finds.html



So, following jew's own logic, since jewishness is only valid thru maternal lineage, then Ashkenazi jews are almost all FAKE.

I wonder what Gilad Atzmon (if that's the same guy there's a thread here on), thinks about that. And that good ol' "6 million" number keeps on popping up! LOL.

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Offline dominique

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"Divert, distort, denigrate, disrupt or destroy any discussion of the corruption of American liberty by the organized lobby of a foreign power."  ~ WindRiverShoshoni

Offline dominique

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Israel now testing DNA to determine would-be immigrants' "Jewish-ness"
« Reply #2 on: October 13, 2013, 07:42:07 AM »
Russian-speakers who want to make aliya could need DNA test
Prime Minister’s Office says would-be immigrants from former Soviet Union may be asked to prove Jewish bloodline
BY ASHER ZEIGER AND TIMES OF ISRAEL STAFF July 29, 2013, 10:19 am

A number of people from the former Soviet Union wishing to immigrate to Israel could be subjected to DNA testing to prove their Jewishness, the Prime Minister’s Office said Sunday.

The policy was reported in Maariv on Monday, one day after the Israeli paper revealed that a19-year-old woman from the former Soviet Union was required to take the test to qualify for a Birthright Israel trip.

The Prime Minister’s Office confirmed that many Jews from the FSU who were born out-of-wedlock can be required to bring DNA confirmation of Jewish heritage in order to be allowed to immigrate as a Jew.

A source in the PMO told Maariv that the consul’s procedure, approved by the legal department of the Interior Ministry, states that a Russian-speaking child born out-of-wedlock is eligible to receive an Israeli immigration visa if the birth was registered before the child turned 3. Otherwise a DNA test to prove Jewish parentage is necessary.

A Foreign Ministry spokesman said that the decision to require DNA testing for Russian Jews is based on the recommendations of Nativ, an educational program under the auspices of the Prime Minister’s Office to help Jews from the FSU immigrate to Israel.

The issue cuts to the heart of Israel’s Law of Return, which allows anybody with a Jewish parent, grandparent or spouse to move to Israel and be eligible for citizenship. Determining who is a Jew — a definition which has evolved along with the religion’s many streams — has led the interior Ministry to create a somewhat byzantine system of checks and rules and has sometimes led applicants, especially converts to Judaism, to fight for the right to immigrate in Israeli courts.

In the original report, Maariv revealed that the issue with Birthright participant Mashah Yakerson lay with the fact that her birth was only registered when she was 3 years old, therefore casting doubts on her parentage. But according to Monday’s report, the issue was compounded by the fact that she was born out-of-wedlock.

Birthright provides free 10-day trips to Israel for young Jewish adults ages 18-26 who have never been to the country in an educational framework.

Dr. Shimon Yakerson said that after appealing the decision he was told that without a DNA test, his daughter would not be permitted to participate in the program or to immigrate to Israel.

“This is blatant racism toward Russian Jews,” Shimon Yakerson told Maariv.

Yakerson said that his daughter’s birth was registered late because he was working at a rabbinical college in the United States when she was born.

Foreign Ministry officials on Sunday told Maariv that they were puzzled by the DNA test requirements, because under the Law of Return, even adopted children of Jews are eligible for Israeli citizenship.

Yakerson has an older daughter, Dina, who immigrated to Israel under the Law of Return in 1990.

http://www.timesofisrael.com/russian-speakers-who-want-to-immigrate-could-need-dna-test/
"Divert, distort, denigrate, disrupt or destroy any discussion of the corruption of American liberty by the organized lobby of a foreign power."  ~ WindRiverShoshoni

Offline laconas

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- Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree
« Reply #3 on: October 13, 2013, 01:32:05 PM »
The Jews must be getting nervous about Russians becoming deep cover spies inside Israel.
Nobody censors what they agree with

Offline Wulfgar

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- Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree
« Reply #4 on: October 13, 2013, 02:06:03 PM »
Plus, there's another thorn in Israel's side:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israels-nightmare-homegrown-neonazis-in-the-holy-land-396392.html

Quote
Swastikas daubed on the walls of synagogues. 'Heil Hitler' salutes. People beaten in the streets because they are Jewish. Where could this be? Germany? Eastern Europe? Try Israel. Neo-Nazism has taken root in the very nation forged from the ashes of the Holocaust. Eric Silver reports


 :-*

Offline Sue

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- Genes Suggest European Women at Root of Ashkenazi Family Tree
« Reply #5 on: October 13, 2013, 02:48:02 PM »
Gil Atzmon, Ph.D. | Albert Einstein College of Medicine, not to be confused with Gilad Atzmon, they are definitely two different people.
"At any given moment there is an orthodoxy, a body of ideas which it is assumed all right-thinking people will accept without question. It is not exactly forbidden to state this or that or the other, but it is "not done".
...Anyone who challenges the prevailing orthodoxy finds himself silenced with.

Offline dominique

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"Divert, distort, denigrate, disrupt or destroy any discussion of the corruption of American liberty by the organized lobby of a foreign power."  ~ WindRiverShoshoni