Author Topic: Collectivization in the USSR {Fingers floating in Soup They Were So Poor!}  (Read 746 times)

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Offline america

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[b ]Collectivization in the USSR
{Written by someone actually there}


Ludwik Kowalski, April 2002
At the time of revolution Russia was mostly an agricultural society; 80% of people were peasants. Serfdom was abolished 56 years before the revolution but peasants remained economically attached to landowners. Land confiscated by Lenin's government after the revolution was redistributed to peasants. But relations between Lenin and peasantry deteriorated rapidly two years later.

Unable to feed workers and soldiers Bolsheviks organized forced requisitions of grain and livestock (between 1918 and 1921). Unrest, riots and famine followed. The number of deaths is said to be about 5 million. The so-called New Economic Policy (1923-1928) was established to stimulate market-based productivity. Plans to nationalize land (to create collectively run farms, and state run farms) were debated but not implemented, except on a volunteer basis. That policy was defended by Bukharin.

But in November of 1928 the Central Committee decided to implement forced collectivization. It was called a move against "rural capitalism". Grain requisitioning intensified and peasants were forced to join collective farms. Anyone opposing collectivization was labeled a kulak. The policy of "liquidation of kulaks as a class," formulated by Stalin at the end of 1929, meant executions, and deportation to concentration camps. The policy targeted the most productive elements of Russian agriculture.

Contrary to official propaganda, peasants resisted collectivization and preferred to consume or destroy everything they had before joining. Food production dropped drastically; at least 4 million died in the resulting famine (mostly in Ukraine). But Stalin succeeded; in 1936 about 90% of Soviet agriculture was collectivized. Productivity, however, was very low. The existence of famine was denied and those who talked about it were treated as counterrevolutionary elements.

According to a textbook I consulted: "In 1988 the Gorbachev government finally admitted that the 1932 famine had been part artificial, the direct result of Stalin's deliberate use of starvation as a means of coercion and social control." The social engineering of the peasantry, conducted under the banner of proletarian dictatorship, was a fiasco; the Soviet Union never recovered from forced collectivization. Food production in 1939, for example, was essentially the same as in 1928.

According to
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/collectivisation.htm

In 1928 Stalin had said:

"Agriculture is developing slowly, comrades. This is because we have about 25 million individually owned farms. They are the most primitive and underdeveloped form of economy. We must do our utmost to develop large farms and to convert them into grain factories for the country organized on modern scientific basis." It is interesting that the agriculture envisaged by the Soviet leader did develop in many capitalist countries. Even today tomatoes and eggs imported to Moscow from Holland or France are said to be less expensive than those domestically produced in Russia.
One more detail should be mentioned. An internal passport system was established in 1932 to control the mobility of labor and to prevent peasants from deserting collective farms. Most peasants did not receive passports, they were permanently attached to the land. This administrative move was, effectively, the reestablishment of serfdom.

Comparing very poor French farms (visited in late 1950's) with the state farms in Poland (where I worked one month each summer in early 1950's) I can say, without hesitation, that poor French peasants were much better off than typical agricultural workers on Polish state farms. My personal experience with Soviet collective farms goes back to the difficult period of WWII. Those who visited USSR in 1950's told me that the standard of living of Polish agricultural workers was much higher than that of their Soviet counterparts.


APPENDIX
Here is how the period of 1920's is described by Richard Lorie in the Biography of Andrei Sakharov, the father of the Soviet H-bomb (University Press of new England, 2002):
In 1921, the year of his birth, peasants were slaughtering Bolsheviks who went to the countryside to requisition food for the hungry cities, their power base.among the working class. But Lenin found a solution: a temporary return to capitalism. Small manufacturers and distributors would be allowed to provide the peasants with the goods they wanted in exchange for produce that, though now taxed, was no longer taken at gunpoint.

For the ideologues, this was a compromise brushing on treason. But Lenin found the perfect slogan: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back. It both appealed to common sense and had the higher justification of the dialectic, the "holy trinity" of Marxism. History was driven by the clash of thesis and antithesis resolving itself into the temporary harmony of synthesis. The forward steps of revolution and civil war had met a counterforce, the reluctance of the peasants, wily, sullen, violent. Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP) worked fast, as it had to. Sausage, ham, eggs, butter, and milk suddenly materialized in stores. ...

The "step back" was doubly lucky for the newborn city dweller Andrei Sakharov because famine struck the heartland Volga region in the year of his birth. One of the idealistic young people who volunteered to work on the hospital trains was Ruth Bonner, whose daughter Elena, yet to be born, would be Sakharov's second wife: "The train would stop and our job was to go out carrying stretchers. We'd go around and pick up the people who could no longer walk by themselves. Sometimes we'd bring back a corpse instead of a live one. You couldn't tell who was alive and who was dead, and every so often you'd make a mistake."

Another five million died, the numbers of the victims rounded off to the nearest million. Cannibalism was rampant. Nearly every Russian family has a story to tellÑan aunt arrested when someone noticed fingers floating in the soup, a little girl going out her front gate and seeing people dead of starvation in the streets, the last of the meat on them, the buttocks, sliced off. In a sweeping humanitarian gesture, now largely forgotten by both sides, America, which had invaded a few years before, now sent in the American Relief Association, which fed ten million people a day during the height of the famine. [/b]
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Offline america

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Ukraine Famine
« Reply #1 on: January 04, 2006, 04:27:52 PM »
America's property rights have always been a strong issue, one is taught the value of property, one is to respect another's property, one is the king of ones castle, the government or anyone else should not interfer with a persons right to property.  These ideas are being carved away with environmental laws, drug laws (excuses to search a property for drugs), and other various types of carving knives that the unsuspecting mass ignores.  I think there is a false sense of security, that no matter what happens one can be safe on ones property.  A few years ago when I read a Palestinian was arrested for planting a tomato crop, I knew then the fight for Palestine was a losing battle and I should focus my attention to my own homeland, less I wind up living like a Palestinian in America.
The same people who are starving the Palestinians and robbing them of their property rights are the same people who starved Russia and the Ukraine.  Not to think it cannot  happen here because there are not enough Jews and America is too powerful.  It only takes a few laws.

It seems when the people decided to fight back against collective farming the Jews aka Bolsheviks known today as "Israeli's" had some more things in store for them. 6 million people starved.

Grain Problem

---------http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/ukra.html-----------------------------------------------------------------------


Addendum to the minutes of Politburo [meeting] No. 93.

RESOLUTION OF THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS OF THE UKRAINIAN
SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC AND OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE
COMMUNIST PARTY (BOLSHEVIK) OF UKRAINE ON BLACKLISTING VILLAGES
THAT MALICIOUSLY SABOTAGE THE COLLECTION OF GRAIN.

     In view of the shameful collapse of grain collection in the
more remote regions of Ukraine, the Council of People's
Commissars and the Central Committee call upon the oblast
executive committees and the oblast [party] committees as well as
the raion executive committees and the raion [party] committees:
to break up the sabotage of grain collection, which has been
organized by kulak and counterrevolutionary elements; to
liquidate the resistance of some of the rural communists, who in
fact have become the leaders of the sabotage; to eliminate the
passivity and complacency toward the saboteurs, incompatible with
being a party member; and to ensure, with maximum speed, full and
absolute compliance with the plan for grain collection.

     The Council of People's Commissars and the Central Committee
resolve:

     To place the following villages on the black list for overt
disruption of the grain collection plan and for malicious
sabotage, organized by kulak and counterrevolutionary elements:

   1. village of Verbka in Pavlograd raion, Dnepropetrovsk
oblast.

   ...

   5. village of Sviatotroitskoe in Troitsk raion, Odessa oblast.

   6. village of Peski in Bashtan raion, Odessa oblast.

     The following measures should be undertaken with respect to
these villages :

     1.  Immediate cessation of delivery of goods, complete
suspension of cooperative and state trade in the villages, and
removal of all available goods from cooperative and state stores.

     2.  Full prohibition of collective farm trade for both
collective farms and collective farmers, and for private farmers.

     3.  Cessation of any sort of credit and demand for early
repayment of credit and other financial obligations. 
                         
     4.  Investigation and purge of all sorts of foreign and
hostile elements from cooperative and state institutions, to be
carried out by organs of the Workers and Peasants Inspectorate.

     5.  Investigation and purge of collective farms in these
villages, with removal of counterrevolutionary elements and
organizers of grain collection disruption.


     The Council of People's Commissars and the Central Committee
call upon all collective and private farmers who are honest and
dedicated to Soviet rule to organize all their efforts for a
merciless struggle against kulaks and their accomplices in order
to:  defeat in their villages the kulak sabotage of grain
collection; fulfill honestly and conscientiously their grain
collection obligations to the Soviet authorities; and strengthen
collective farms.

                     CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S         
                     COMMISSARS OF THE UKRAINIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST
                     REPUBLIC - V. CHUBAR'.

                     SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE   
                     COMMUNIST PARTY (BOLSHEVIK) OF UKRAINE - S. 
                     KOSIOR.

6 December 1932.

                     True copy     




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Offline america

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Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee in the USSR
« Reply #2 on: January 04, 2006, 04:39:53 PM »
Those same people above became "antifascists."  Gives the word fascist a new meaning.

Jewish Antifascist Committee

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


            JEWISH ANTIFASCIST COMMITTEE IN THE USSR
 Moscow, ulitsa Kropotkina, 10, Telephone: G-6-71-00, G-6-47-07
            [letterhead also in Russian and Yiddish]

                         21 June 1946

TO COMRADE M. A. SUSLOV, DIRECTOR OF THE SECTION FOR FOREIGN
POLICY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY

     Pursuant to the inquiry of Comrade Shumeiko, we are
providing some information about the Jewish Antifascist Committee
in the USSR and its activity.

     ...

     The Jewish Antifascist Committee in the USSR was formed soon
after the first antifascist radio broadcast political rally of
representatives of the Jewish people, which was held in Moscow in
August 1941.

     The Committee consists of 70 members (a list of Committee
members is attached), and its executive committee has 19 members
(a list of executive committee members is attached).

     The working staff of the Committee consists of:

     1)  Secretary of the Committee, whose duties (following the
death of Comrade Shakhno Epshtein) are carried out by the writer
I. Fefer, member of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
[VKP(b)] since 1919.

     2)  Deputy Secretary of the Committee, Comrade S.M.
Shpigel'glias, VKP(b) member since 1919 and formerly a party
worker.

     3)  Senior editors: N. IA. Levin, VKP(b) member since 1944
and veteran of World War II; L. A. Gol'dberg, not a party member,
former director of the publishing house Der Emes; editor S.O.
Berman, VKP(b) member since 1940, veteran of World War II; and
three translators and several technical workers.


     In the course of the last two years, representatives of a
series of foreign Jewish antifascist organizations have visited
the Committee: Deputy Chairman of the Jewish Antifascist
Committee of Bulgaria, Mr. Zhak Vradzhali; one of the leaders of
the Union of Jews of Czechoslovakia, Mr. Rozenberg;
representatives of Jewish organizations of France, Poland, et al.

     Recently Mr. Ben Zion Goldberg (Waife), the son-in-law of
Sholem Aleichem, visited the Soviet Union.  He is a prominent
public figure in the United States, a member of the executive
committee of the Soviet-American Friendship Society (headed by
Lamont), chairman of the Committee of Jewish Scientists, Writers,
and Artists of the United States (Albert Einstein is president of
the Committee), vice-president of Ambidjan, the All-American
Society for Aid to Birobidzhan (president of Ambidzhan--
Steffenson).  Mr. Goldberg is also a major American journalist, a
contributor to the newspapers Toronto Star, Saint Louis Dispatch,
New York Post, and Today, and to the magazine New Republic.  Mr.
Goldberg stayed in the Soviet Union from January 11 to June 8,
excluding one month when he traveled to Finland, Sweden, and
Denmark.

     During his stay in the Soviet Union, Mr. Goldberg was
received in Moscow by M. I. Kalinin and S. A. Lozovskii; he
attended all meetings of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union;
and he had a series of meetings with Soviet writers (including a
banquet at the Union of Writers), with representatives of the
Soviet Jewish community (at the Jewish Antifascist Committee in
the USSR headquarters), with leaders of the State Jewish Theater,
with the chief rabbi of the Moscow Jewish congregation, Shliffer,
and with leaders of the Red Cross, among others.

     Mr. Goldberg visited Riga, Tallin, Leningrad, Minsk,
Vilnius, Kaunas, Kiev, Odessa, Lvov, Uzhgorod, Mukachevo, Brody,
and Stalingrad.  He was received by the leading workers and
writers in the capitals of the union republics.

     During his stay in the Soviet Union, Mr. Goldberg dispatched
via the Soviet Information Bureau 33 articles to the American,
Canadian, English, Palestinian, Polish, and Yiddish press.  The
articles were extremely friendly toward the Soviet Union.

     Before his departure, Mr. Goldberg began to write a book in
English entitled England, the Opponent of Peace, and a book in
Yiddish entitled Jewish Culture in the Soviet Union. 

     Recently the Committee has received a series of requests
from prominent Jewish public figures from several countries
seeking assistance in visiting the Soviet Union.  Such requests
were received from:  N. Goldman, the chairman of the executive
committee of the World Jewish Congress; Dr. Stephen Wise,
chairman of the American Jewish Congress; Louis Levine, chairman
of the Jewish Union for Soviet Aid under Russian War Relief; Mr.
Raiskii, the editor-in-chief of the newspaper Presse Nouvelle in
Paris; et al.

     The Jewish Antifascist Committee in the USSR has sent during
its entire existence one delegation, composed of Comrades
Mikhoels and Fefer, to the United States, England, Canada, and
Mexico.  This delegations's trip report has been published in the
book The Jewish People against Fascism (attached; see pp. 91-
129).
                                   [signed]

Chairman of the Jewish Anfifascist Committee in the USSR: S.
Mikhoels
Member of the Executive Committee of the Jewish Antifascist
Committee in the USSR: I. Fefer

.................................................................
TRANSLATOR'S COMMENTS: [Stamps at upper right:]   Removed from
the register; to the dossier of [blank] sector; date: 9 Jan.
1947.
[Secretariat OMI], Central Committee of the Communist Party
No. 2074    1 July 1946
[Handwritten marginalia at left margin of p. 1:]
To the archive
[illegible notations and signature]
The book stays. [signed] G. Shumeiko
25/1948



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Offline america

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Compare what this Soviet Doctor writes in top secret to what the German letters that were written and today is called "propaganda."

This man stated he had never seen conditions so bad and then sent a doctor's statement along with his summary of the situation.


19/9 April 32<p>

       At the same time I am sending you the doctor's statement on
the famine in peasant families and in turn I corroborate that I
observed a similar situation.<p>




                                         Top Secret<p>

TO THE HEAD OF THE WESTERN SIBERIA REGIONAL BOARD OF
HEALTH  Comrade  TRAKMAN.<p>

Copy to POKROV REGIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE ALL-UNION
COMMUNIST PARTY (Bosheviks), REGIONAL EXECUTIVE
COMMITTEE and RUSSIAN COMMUNIST LEAGUE<p>

                            MEMORANDUM<p>

       On the instructions of the Regional Committee of the All-
Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) issued to Kiselev on 24 March
1932 on the subject of finding hunger-caused illness, several
families of the Kartsovskii village soviet were observed and the
following was found:  as stated by soviet chairman Comrade
Sukhanov and secretary of the First Party Organization Comrade
Medvedev, a series of written and oral statements from the
kolkhozniks of this village, that they and their families suffer from
starvation, were received.<p>

       The statements were made by the following people: <p>
Gorokhova Mariia, Pautova Malan'ia, Rogozina Irina, Logacheva
Ustin'ia, and others.  The soviet chairman, the secretary of the First
Party Organization and other communists substantiate the fact that
the kolkhozniks use animals that have died as food.<p>

       Together with the soviet chairman and other citizens I visited
the quarters of the above-mentioned kolkhozniks and also as per
my wish I observed a series of homes besides the aforementioned in
order to be convinced that the worst family cases were not chosen
as an example.<p>

       From my observation of 20 homes in first and second Karpov,
I found only in one home, that of a Red Army veteran, a relative
condition of nourishment, some flour and bread, but the rest
subsist on food substitutes.  Almost in every home either children
or mothers were ill, undoubtably due to starvation, since their faces
and entire bodies were swollen.<p>

       An especially horrible picture of the following families:<p>       
1) The family of Konstantin Sidel'nikov who had gone to trade his
wife's remaining shirts, skirts, and scarves for bread. The wife lay
ill, having given birth 5 days earlier, and 4 very small children as
pale as wax with swollen cheeks sat at the filthy table like
marmots, and with spoons ate, from a common cup, hot water into
which had been added from a bottle a white liquid of questionable
taste and sour smell, which turned out to be skim milk (the result
of passing milk through a separator).  Konstantin Sidel'nikov and
his wife are excellent kolkhozniks--prime workers, ex-perienced
kolkhozniks.<p>
       2) IAkov Sidel'nikov has 2 children and elderly parents, both
70, living in one room, but they eat separately; that is, the elderly
obtain their own food substitutes with their savings; the son, IAkov
Sidel'nikov, with his own; they hide their food substitutes from
each other outside (I have attached examples of these food
substitutes to this memorandum).  The elderly in tears ask: "Doctor,
give us death!"<p>

       3) Filipp Borodin has earned 650 work-days, has a wife and 5
children ranging from one-and-a-half to nine years of age.  The
wife lies ill on the oven, 3 children sit on the oven, they are as pale
as wax with swollen faces, the one-and-a-half year old sits pale by
the window, swollen, the 9 year old lies ill on the earthen floor
covered with rags, and Filipp Borodin himself sits on a bench and
continuously smokes cigarettes made of repulsively pungent
tobacco, cries like a babe, asks death for his children.  In tears he
asks Comrade Sukhanov: "Give us at least 1 kilo of potatoes, give
us at least 1 liter of milk, after all, I worked all summer and even
now I work unceasingly (now he takes care of the bulls and in the
summer he tends the grazing cows).<p>

       According the the statement by Comrade Sukhanov and the
brigadier of the kolkhoz "Red Partisan," Borodin was a non-
complaining worker.<p>

       Borodin does not even have food substitutes for nourishment,
two days ago he and his family ate two sickly piglets thrown out of
the common farmyard.  In the Borodin home there is unbelievable
filth, dampness, and stench, mixed with the smell of tobacco.
Borodin swears at the children: "The devils don't die, I wish I didn't
have to look at you!"  Having objectively investigated the condition
of Borodin himself I ascertain that he (Borodin) is starting to slip
into psychosis due to starvation, which can lead to his eating his
own children.<p>

       My inspection of the series of families took place at the dinner
hour, where they use those same food substitutes which they eat
with hot water, but in several homes (2) on the table there were
gnawed bones from a sickly horse.  According to the explanations
of the kolkhozniks, they themselves prepare food in the following
manner: they grind sunflower stems, flax and hemp seeds, chaff,
dreg, colza, goosefoot, and dried potato peelings, and they bake flat
cakes.  Of the food substitutes listed above, the oily seeds are
nutritious, which are healthy in combined foods since they contain
vitamins, by themselves the vegetable oils do not contain vitamins
and by not com-bining them with other food products of more
equal nourishment and caloric value they are found to be toxic and
will harm the body.  Based on:  General Course on Hygiene by
Prof. G. V. Khotopin, p. 301-4--_.<p>

       The homes are filthy, the area around the homes is polluted
by human waste, by diarrhea caused by these substitutes.  People
walk around like shadows, silent, vacant; empty homes with
boarded-up windows (about 500 homeowners have left their homes
in Karpov village for destinations unknown); one rarely sees an
animal on the street (apparently the last ones have been eaten).<p>

       In the entire village of 1000 yards I found only 2 chickens and
a rooster.  Occasionally one meets an emaciated dog.<p>
       The impression is that Karpov village seems to be hit by
anbiosis (hibernation, a freeze, falling asleep).<p>
       The livestock is free to feed on thatched roofs of homes and
barns.<p>

       In reporting the above-related to the Pokrov Regional
Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks),
Regional Executive Committee, Russian Com-munist League, and to
you, as the regional health inspector and doctor of the Pokrov
region, I beg of you to undertake immediate measures to help the
starving and to notify me of the practical measures taken.<p>

March 25, 1932     Regional health inspector--doctor--KISELEV<p>

       True copy:<p>
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Offline america

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http://www.libertyforum.org/showflat.php?Cat=&Board=news_history&Number=294277296&view=collapsed&sb=5&o=7&part=

Here is the link regarding the Nazi soldiers letters, match them with this doctors statement, the Nazi's were telling the truth.
Just as they told the truth about Katyn Massacre.
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Re: Collectivization in the USSR {Fingers floating in Soup They Were So Poor!}
« Reply #5 on: December 26, 2007, 08:22:00 PM »
In 1928 Stalin had said:

"Agriculture is developing slowly, comrades. This is because we have about 25 million individually owned farms. They are the most primitive and underdeveloped form of economy. We must do our utmost to develop large farms and to convert them into grain factories for the country organized on modern scientific basis." It is interesting that the agriculture envisaged by the Soviet leader did develop in many capitalist countries. Even today tomatoes and eggs imported to Moscow from Holland or France are said to be less expensive than those domestically produced in Russia.
One more detail should be mentioned. An internal passport system was established in 1932 to control the mobility of labor and to prevent peasants from deserting collective farms. Most peasants did not receive passports, they were permanently attached to the land. This administrative move was, effectively, the reestablishment of serfdom.

Comparing very poor French farms (visited in late 1950's) with the state farms in Poland (where I worked one month each summer in early 1950's) I can say, without hesitation, that poor French peasants were much better off than typical agricultural workers on Polish state farms. My personal experience with Soviet collective farms goes back to the difficult period of WWII. Those who visited USSR in 1950's told me that the standard of living of Polish agricultural workers was much higher than that of their Soviet counterparts.


We are headed in the direction of the peasant farmers, just taxed to death.  Taxation in Capitalism is equal to the collective farms, same people collecting off the majority.  With the bio fuel, no one will afford a cow.  Or a car.
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